Community Planning and Development  book cover
1st Edition

Community Planning and Development

ISBN 9781138023093
Published December 14, 2015 by Routledge
1781 Pages

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Book Description

Community development refers to planned efforts aimed at producing assets to increase the ability and capacity of inhabitants to enhance quality of life. There are many types of assets recognized in community development, including social, physical, human, financial and environmental. Community development can be considered both as a process of developing the ability to act collectively, and an outcome: 1) taking collective action and 2) the result of that action for improvement in a community in any or all realms.

A key feature within community development is the notion of social capital or social capacity, generally recognized by both researchers and practitioners as the resources embedded within relationships among people and organizations that help facilitate collaboration and cooperation. A rich history of community development shows the connection to engagement, advocacy, housing rights, anti-poverty and other socially focused concerns. The focus of planning entails the establishment of goals, policies, and procedures for a social or economic unit, such as in a city, community, region or nation. Community planning and development thus seeks to foster viable communities by promoting integrated approaches that provide decent housing, a suitable living environment, and expand economic opportunities for low and moderate income persons.

This four-volume set covers the wide social, economic, political, environmental and urban contexts for community planning and development. Providing both foundation contexts as well as addressing current issues, the collection brings together the most relevant overviews and critiques of community planning and development, applicable to both developing and developed countries. The set is fully indexed, and provides a comprehensive overview newly written by the editor as well as an introduction for each volume. It provides an essential work of reference, designed to be useful to scholars, students, and researchers as a vital research resource.

Table of Contents

Community Planning and Development

Edited by Rhonda Phillips and Patsy Kraeger

Volume 1: Theory and Context

Table of Contents


General Introduction

Introduction to volume 1

1. Paul Davidoff, ‘Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1965, 31, 4, 331-338.

2. Paulo Freire, ‘Cultural Action for Freedom’, Harvard Educational Review, 1998, 68, 4, 476-522.

3. Saul D. Alinsky, ‘Prologue’, in Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971), pp. xiii-xxvi.

4. Saul D. Alinsky, ‘The Purpose’, in Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971), pp. 3-23.

5. Jane Jacobs, ‘The Uses of City Neighborhoods’, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), pp. 112-140.

6. Sherry R. Arnstein, ‘A Ladder of Citizen Participation’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1969, 35, 4, 216-224.

7. John Forester, ‘On the Theory and Practice of Critical Pragmatism: Deliberative Practice and Creative Negotiations’, Planning Theory, 2012, 12, 1, 5–22.

8. John Friedmann, ‘The Terrain of Planning Theory’, Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), pp. 19-48.

9. Cornelia Butler Flora and Jan L. Flora, ‘Creating Social Capital’, in J. Pretty (ed.), The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Agriculture (London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan, 2005), pp. 39-46. Originally published in W. Vitek and W. Jackson (eds), Rooted in the Land: Essays on Community and Place (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

10. Ronald J. Hustedde, ‘Seven Theories for Seven Community Developers’, in Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (eds.), An Introduction to Community Development, 2nd ed., (London: Routledge, 2015), pp. 22-44.

11. Margaret Ledwith, ‘Opening Thoughts’, in Community Development: A Critical Approach, 2nd ed., (Bristol: Policy Press, 2005), pp. 1-8.

12. Margaret Ledwith, ‘Why Empower?’, in Community Development: A Critical Approach, 2nd ed., (Bristol: Policy Press, 2005), pp. 9-29.


13. Barry Checkoway, ‘Social Justice Approach to Community Development’, Journal of Community Practice, 2013, 21, 4, 472-486.

14. John T. Metzger, ‘The Theory and Practice of Equity Planning: An Annotated Bibliography’, Journal of Planning Literature, 1996, 11, 1, 112-126.

15. Laura Wolf-Powers, ‘Understanding Community Development in a "Theory of Action" Framework: Norms, Markets, Justice’. Planning Theory & Practice, 2014, 15, 2, 202–219.

16. E. R. Alexander, ‘Institutional Transformation and Planning: From Institutionalization Theory to Institutional Design’, Planning Theory, 2005, 4, 3, 209-223.

17. Bonnie Young Laing, ‘A Critique of Rothman’s and Other Standard Community Organizing Models: Toward Developing a Culturally Proficient Community Organizing Framework’, Community Development, 2009, 40, 1, 20-36.

18. Jonathan Bendor, ‘Incrementalism: Dead yet Flourishing’, Public Administration Review, 2015, 75, 2, 194 – 205.

19. Jacqueline C. Vischer, ‘Towards a User-centred Theory of the Built Environment’, Building Research & Information, 2008, 36, 3, 231–240.


Volume 2: Approaches and Techniques

Table of Contents


Introduction to volume 2

20. Michael Batty, ‘Building a Science of Cities’, Cities, 2012, 29, pp. S9-S16.

21. John M. Bryson, ‘What to Do When Stakeholders Matter: Stakeholder Identification and Analysis Techniques’, Public Management Review, 2004, 6, 1, 21-53.

22. Mark G. Chupp and Mark L. Joseph, ‘Getting the Most Out of Service Learning: Maximizing Student, University and Community Impact’, Journal of Community Practice, 2010, 18, 2-3, 190-212.

23. Titiana-Petra Ertiö, ‘Participatory Apps for Urban Planning—Space for Improvement’, Planning Practice & Research, 2015, 30, 3, 303-321.

24. Adriana de Souza e Silva, ‘From Cyber to Hybrid: Mobile Technologies as Interfaces of Hybrid Spaces’, Space and Culture, 2006, 9, 3, 261-278.

25. Jennifer Evans-Cowley and Justin Hollander, ‘The New Generation of Public Participation: Internet-based Participation Tools’, Planning, Practice & Research, 2010, 25, 3, 397-408.

26. Larry M. Grant et al, ‘Effects of Photovoice: Civic Engagement Among Older Youth in Urban Communities’, Journal of Community Practice, 2009, 17, 4, 358-376.

27. Janet Michelle Hammer, ‘Large Group Interventions as a Tool for Community Visioning and Planning’, Community Development, 2010, 41, 2, 209-222.

28. Patsy Healey, ‘Relational Complexity and the Imaginative Power of Strategic Spatial Planning’. European Planning Studies, 2006, 14, 4, 525-546.

29. Reinout Kleinhans, Maarten Van Ham and Jennifer Evans-Cowley, ‘Using Social Media and Mobile Technologies to Foster Engagement and Self-organization in Participatory Urban Planning and Neighbourhood Governance’, Planning Practice & Research, 2015, 30, 3, 237-247.

30. Michael E. Porter, ‘New Strategies for Inner-city Economic Development’, Economic Development Quarterly, 1997, 11, 1, 11-27.

31. Mary E. Northridge, Elliott D. Sclar and Padmini Biswas, ‘Sorting out the Connections Between the Built Environment and Health: A Conceptual Framework for Navigating Pathways and Planning Healthy Cities’, Journal of Urban Health, 2003, 80, 4, 556-568.

32. Mary L. Ohmer, Pamela Meadowcroft, Kate Freed and Erika Lewis, ‘Community Gardening and Community Development: Individual, Social and Community Benefits of a Community Conservation Program’, Journal of Community Practice, 2009, 17, 4, 377-399.

33. Kenneth M. Reardon, ‘Enhancing the Capacity of Community-based Organizations in East St. Louis’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 1998, 17, 4, 323-333.

34. Ethan Seltzer and Dillon Mahmoudi, ‘Citizen Participation, Open Innovation, and Crowdsourcing: Challenges and Opportunities for Planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2013, 28, 1, 3-18.

35. Paul Waddell, ‘UrbanSim: Modeling Urban Development for Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2002, 68, 3, 297-314.

36. Li Fang, ‘Do Clusters Encourage Innovation? A Meta-analysis’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2015 30, 3, 239-260,

37. Philip Berke and David Godschalk, ‘Searching for the Good Plan: A Meta-analysis of Plan Quality Studies’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2009, 23, 3, 227-240.

38. Earl R. Jones and William M. Harris, ‘A Conceptual Scheme for Analysis of the Social Planning Process’, Journal of the Community Development Society, 1987, 18, 2, 18-41.

39. Lynne C. Manzo and Douglas D. Perkins, ‘Finding Common Ground: The Importance of Place Attachment to Community Participation and Planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2006, 20, 4, 335-350.

40. Daniel A. Underwood, Donald D. Hackney and Dan Friesner, ‘Criteria for Sustainable Community Economic Development: Integrating Diversity and Solidarity into the Planning Process’, Journal of Economic Issues, 2015, 49, 4, 1112-1123.

Volume 3: Issues and Opportunities

Table of Contents


Introduction to volume 3


41. Robert S. Ogilvie, ‘Community Development Approaches to Public Health: People Creating Places Where the Healthy Choice is the Easy Choice’, Community Development, 2011, 42, 2, 134-136.

42. Neale Smith, Lori Baugh Littlejohns and Donna Thompson, ‘Shaking Out the Cobwebs: Insights into Community Capacity and its Relation to Health Outcomes’, Community Development Journal, 2001, 36, 1, 30-41.

43. Malo Andre Hutson and Sacoby Wilson, ‘The Role of Community-Based Strategies in Addressing Metropolitan Segregation and Racial Health Disparities’, Community Development Journal, 2011, 42, 4, 476-493.

44. Colin Cameron, ‘Whose Problem? Disability Narratives and Available Identities’ Community Development Journal, 2007, 42, 4, 501-511.

45. Elizabeth J. Mueller and J. Rosie Tighe, ‘Making the Case for Affordable Housing: Connecting Housing with Health and Education Outcomes’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2007, 21, 4, 371-385.

46. Meg Holden, Charling Li and Ana Molina, ‘The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World’, Sustainability, 2015, 7, 9, 11418-11437.

47. Bella Marckmann, Kirsten Gram-Hanssen and Toke Haunstrup Christensen, ‘Sustainable Living and Co-housing: Evidence from a Case Study of Eco-villages’, Built Environment, 2012, 38, 3, 413-429.

48. Dick Urban Vestbro and Lisa Horelli, ‘Design for Gender Equality: The History of Cohousing Ideas and Realities’, Built Environment, 2012, 38, 3, 315-335.

49. Susan S. Fainstein, ‘Cities and Diversity: Should We Want It? Can We Plan For It?’, Urban Affairs Review, 2005, 41, 1, 3-19.

50. Elizabeth Currid, ‘Bohemia as Subculture; "Bohemia" as Industry: Art, Culture, and Economic Development’ Journal of Planning Literature, 2009, 23, 4, 368-382.

51. Elsa Vivant, ‘Creatives in the City: Urban Contradictions of the Creative City’, City, Culture and Society,2013, 4, 57-63.

52. Francesco Bandarin, ‘The Creative Power of Cities’, City, Culture and Society, 2011, 2, 121-122.

53. Roberta Comunian and Oliver Mould, ‘The Weakest Link: Creative Industries, Flagship Cultural Projects and Regeneration’, City, Culture and Society, 2014, 5, 65-74.

54. Anne H. Toomey, ‘Empowerment and Disempowerment in Community Development Practice: Eight Roles Practitioners Play’, Community Development Journal, 2011, 46, 2, 181-195.

55. Glenn Laverack, ‘Using a "Domains" Approach to Build Community Empowerment’, Community Development Journal, 2006, 41, 1, 4-12.

56. Leanne Townsend, Arjuna Sathiaseelan, Gorry Fairhurst and Claire Wallace, ‘Enhanced Broadband Access as a Solution to the Social and Economic Problems of the Rural Digital Divide’, Local Economy, 2013, 28, 6, 580-595.

57. Wilson MaJee and Ann Hoyt, ‘Cooperatives and Community Development: A Perspective on the Use of Cooperatives in Development’, Journal of Community Practice, 2011, 19, 48-61.

58. Jodi Skipper, ‘Community Development Through Reconciliation Tourism: The Behind the Big House Program in Holly Springs, Mississippi’, Journal of the Community Development Society, 2016, 47, 4, 514-529.

59. Jessica Aquino, Rhonda Phillips and Heekyung Sung, ‘Tourism, Culture, and the Creative Industries: Reviving Distressed Neighborhoods with Arts-Based Community Tourism’, Tourism Culture and Communications, 2013, 12, 1, 5-18.

60. Jeni Burnell and Rhonda Phillips, ‘The "New" Local’, in Rhona Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (eds), An Introduction to Community Development, 2nd ed., (Abingdon: Routledge, 2015), pp. 89-102.

61. Sherri Leronda Wallace, ‘Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Social Purpose Enterprises in Facilitating Community Economic Development’, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 1999, 4, 2, 153-174.

62. Filipe M Santos, ‘A Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship’, Journal of Business Ethics, 2012, 111, 3, 335-351.


Volume 4: Progress and Future Outlook

Table of Contents


Introduction to volume 4

63. Mary Emery and Cornelia Flora, ‘Spiraling-Up: Mapping Community Transformation with Community Capitals Framework’, Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, 2006, 37, 1, 19-35.

64. Emily Talen, ‘Do Plans Get Implemented? A Review of Evaluation in Planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, 1996, 10, 3, 248-259.

65. Carissa Schively, ‘Understanding the NIMBY and LULU Phenomena: Reassessing Our Knowledge Base and Informing Future Research’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2007, 21, 3, 255-266.

66. Louise Chawla, ‘Benefits of Nature Contact for Children’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2015, 30, 4, 433-452.

67. Deirdre Pfeiffer and Scott Cloutier, ‘Planning for Happy Neighborhoods’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2016, 82, 3, 267-279.

68. Vitor Oliveira and Paulo Pinho, ‘Evaluation in Urban Planning: Advances and Prospects’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2010, 24, 4, 343-361.

69. Ward Lyles, Philip Berke and Gavin Smith, ‘Local Plan Implementation: Assessing Conformance and Influence of Local Plans in the United States’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2016, 43, 2, 381-400.

70. Kathryn I. Frank and Sean A. Reiss, ‘The Rural Planning Perspective at an Opportune Time’, Journal of Planning Literature, 2014, 29, 4, 386-402.

71. Jessica Goldsworthy, ‘Resurrecting a Model of Integrating Individual Work with Community Development and Social Action’, Community Development Journal, 2002, 37, 4, 327-337.

72. Cheng Yi'En, ‘Telling Stories of the City: Walking Ethnography, Affective Materialities, and Mobile Encounters’. Space and Culture, 2014, 17, 3, 211-223.

73. Paolo Neirotti, Alberto De Marco, Anna Corianna Cagliano, Giulio Mangano and Francesco Scorrano, ‘Current Trends in Smart City Initiatives: Some Stylised Facts’, Cities, 2014, 38, 25-36.

74. Yosef Jabareen, ‘Planning the Resilient City: Concepts and Strategies for Coping with Climate Change and Environmental Risk’, Cities, 2013, 31, 220-229.

75. Marcial H. Echenique, Anthony J. Hargreaves, Gordon Mitchell and Anil Namdeo, ‘Growing Cities Sustainably: Does Urban Form Really Matter?’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2012, 78, 2, 121-137.

76. Marisa A. Zapata and Nikhil Kaza, ‘Radical Uncertainty: Scenario Planning for Futures’. Environment and Planning B Planning and Design, 2015, 42, 754-770.

77. Stephen M. Wheeler, ‘Introduction’, in Planning for Sustainability: Creating Liveable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities 2nd ed., (London and New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 1-22.

78. Ken Reardon and John Forester, ‘Introduction: Making a Difference in Response to Hurricane Katrina’, and ‘Planning, Hope, and Struggle in the Wake of Katrina: Ken Reardon on the New Orleans Planning Initiative’, Planning, Theory & Practice, 9, 4, 2008, 517-540

79. James P. Connell and Anne C. Kubisch, ‘Applying a Theory of Change Approach to the Evaluation of Comprehensive Community Initiatives: Progress, Prospects, and Problems’, New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives, 1998, 2, 15-44.

80. Judith E. Innes and David E. Booher, ‘Consensus Building and Complex Adaptive Systems: A Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1999, 65, 4, 412-423.

81. Philip R. Berke and Maria Manta Conroy, ‘Are we Planning for Sustainable Development? An Evaluation of 30 Comprehensive Plans’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2000, 66, 1, 21-33.







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Dr Rhonda Phillips is Dean of the Honors College at Purdue University, USA.

Dr Patsy Kraeger is an Assistant Professor in the Institute for Public and Nonprofit Studies at Georgia Southern University, USA.