Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams

1st Edition

By Sudeep Bhattacharjee

CRC Press

392 pages | 207 B/W Illus.

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Description

Recent research has brought the application of microwaves from the classical fields of heating, communication, and generation of plasma discharges into the generation of compact plasmas that can be used for applications such as FIB and small plasma thrusters. However, these new applications bring with them a new set of challenges. With coverage ranging from the basics to new and emerging applications, Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams discusses how compact high-density microwave plasmas with dimensions smaller than the geometrical cutoff dimension can be generated and utilized for providing focused ion beams of various elements.

Starting with the fundamentals of the cutoff problem for wave propagation in waveguides and plasma diagnostics, the author goes on to explain in detail the plasma production by microwaves in a compact geometry and narrow tubes. He then thoroughly discusses wave interaction with bounded plasmas and provides a deeper understanding of the physics. The book concludes with an up-to-date account of recent research on pulsed microwaves and the application of compact microwave plasmas for multi-element FIB.

It provides a consolidated and unified description of the emerging areas in plasma science and technology utilizing wave-based plasma sources based on the author’s own work and experience. The book will be useful not only to established researchers in this area but will also serve as an excellent introduction to those interested in applying these ideas to various current and new applications.

Reviews

"In his book, Professor Bhattacharjee has shown how compact and overdense plasmas in the microwave regime can be generated and sustained using multicusp magnetic fields. Detailed investigations of the physics of wave interactions with such bounded plasmas have been carried out and elaborated in the book, including adequate theoretical treatments and modeling. … The book reports several new findings in this class of plasmas … the latter half of the book is devoted to generation of multi-element focused ion beams (FIB) from these compact plasmas to widen the scope of research and applications of present day FIB systems. … The book will also be useful to graduate students or researchers wanting to learn experimental plasma physics in general and or entering the research area of wave-assisted plasmas."

—Hiroshi Amemiya, RIKEN Expert Corps Research and Development Inc. (Rec-Rd Inc.), Wako, Saitama, Japan

"… valuable treatise on compact plasma production and its applications … The book will be useful not only to researchers in this area but will also serve as an excellent introduction to those contemplating to apply these ideas to various current and new applications. My congratulations to the author on this excellent contribution."

—Abhijit Sen, Institute for Plasma Research, India

"This book addresses one of the popular methods used to create dense plasmas: microwave sources. It is addressed to those wishing to have a more profound understanding of the physics of microwave plasma generation in small sources and the details of the extraction of kilovolt ion beams from such a source. I can recommend this book to all who wish to enter this new area of technological development."

—Rod Boswell, Australian National University, Canberra

"The book is rich in knowledge on physics of wave interaction with plasmas sustained in compact geometries in multicusp magnetic fields and, furthermore, suggests a novel application of ion beams obtained from these plasmas. I am confident that the readers will benefit much from this book. The author is congratulated on completing this outstanding piece of work."

—Takahide Nakagawa, RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Japan

"The book provides a timely account of this emerging and exciting field of microwave plasmas, and it is written by an author who has worked in the frontier of the field for nearly two decades. The text is clear and concise. No print is wasted on lengthy expansions of basic textbook introductions to plasma physics. Instead, the focus turns immediately to the most relevant topics necessary to understand this particular type of plasma production. … a thorough discussion on wave interaction with bounded plasmas provides a deeper understanding of the physics. … This important book is a must for graduate students and researchers in experimental plasma physics who want to get up to speed with the latest research in compact microwave plasmas!"

—Ashild Fredriksen, University of Tromso, Norway

Table of Contents

Introduction

Plasma

Particle Interactions

Some Basic Plasma Properties

Criterion for the Definition of a Plasma

Different Types of Plasmas

Description of Plasmas

Theoretical Approaches

Microwave-Generated Plasmas

Compact Microwave Plasma Sources

Research Objective and Methods

References

Review of the Cutoff Problem

A Brief History of Earlier Work

Microwave Propagation in Waveguides

Plasma Density Cutoff

References

Plasma and Wave Diagnostics

Plasma Diagnostics with Langmuir’s Probes

Design of Electromagnetic Probes

References

Genesis of a Wave Induced Discharge: A New Perspective

Introduction

Historical Development of Breakdown Studies

Modeling of the Electron Dynamics

Development of the General Algorithm

Field-Free Case: Three-Dimensional Random Walk

Electron Transport in the Presence of an EM Field

Magnetostatically Assisted Electron Transport in the Presence of an EM Field

Electric Field Effects and the Random Walk Parameter

Linear and Circularly Polarized Waves

Summary and Conclusion

References

Plasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Near-Circular Multicusp

Introduction

Apparatus

Multicusp Design

Waveguide Design

Experimental Results

Spatial Profiles of the Plasma

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Plasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Rectangular Nonmulticusp Waveguide

Introduction

Experimental Procedures

Experimental Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Comparison of Square and Near-Circular Multicusp Waveguides

Introduction

Waveguide Design

Experimental Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Summary of Experimental Results in Continuous-Mode Microwaves

Summary of the Plasma Production Mechanisms

References

Plasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves: General Experiment

Introduction

Apparatus and Methods of the Experiment in a Circular Waveguide with a Dimension below Cutoff

Some Additional Details of the Experimental Set-Up

Probe for Measuring the Electric Field

Experimental Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Plasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves: Circular Multicusp Waveguide with a Dimension below Cutoff

Introduction

Experimental Setup and Procedures

Experimental Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Plasma Buildup by Short-Pulse, High-Power Microwaves

Introduction

Experiments

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Power Absorption and Intense Collimated Beam Production in a Pulsed High-Power Microwave Ion Source

Introduction

Ion Source Design and Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Summary in Pulsed Microwaves

References

New Experiments in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Formation of Standing Waves and Electron Trapping

Overview of the New Experimental System

Introduction

Spatial Plasma Characteristics

Axial Wave Field Intensity Measurements

Electron Trapping in SW Minima

Model Calculation

Summary and Discussion

References

Penetration and Screening of Perpendicularly Launched Electromagnetic Waves

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Experimental Observation

Modeling

Modeling Results

Discussion and Summary

References

Wave Birefringence in Perpendicular Propagation

Introduction

Polar Plasma Characteristics

Polar Wave Field Intensity Measurements

Modeling of the Wave Birefringence

Discussion and Summary

References

Electron Localization and Trapping Physics Revisited

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Modeling

Modeling Results

Summary and Discussion

References

New Experiments in Pulsed Microwaves: Quasisteady-State Interpulse Plasmas

Introduction

Experiment

Experimental Results

Model Calculation

Discussion and Conclusion

References

Electron Plasma Waves Inside Large-Amplitude Electromagnetic Pulses

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Time–Frequency Analysis

Model

Summary

References

Transition from Interpulse to Afterglow Plasmas

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Results

Summary

References

Introduction to Focused Ion Beams

Focused Ion Beams

References

Experimental Setup for Basic Plasma Studies

Introduction

Basic Plasma Experiments

Measurement of Plasma Parameters

Sub-Cutoff Dimensional Plasma Sources

Conclusion

References

Basic Beam Studies: Extraction and Ion Energy Distribution

Introduction

Experiment

Results and Discussion

Conclusion

References

Multielement Focused Ion Beam

Introduction

Beam Column of MEFIB

Beam Simulation Codes

Results and Discussion

Tolerance Studies

Conclusion

References

Focused Ion Beam Experiments

Introduction

Results and Discussion

Conclusion

References

Summary and Future Prospects

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI051000
SCIENCE / Nuclear Physics
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC024000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Microwaves