Specifically designed for health visitors, general practitioners, nurses, dietitians and nutritionists, this is the first book to clarify the suggested balance of different foods and food groups needed to provide a healthy diet in infants. It interprets government recommendations and current research to give health professionals completely up-to-date, highly detailed advice in a practical, easy-to-read format. Tables and figures are widely used to illustrate complex concepts and aid understanding. It is ideal as a daily reference. Healthcare policy makers and shapers will also find much of interest to assist in the provision of new guidance.
Table of Contents
Foreword. Preface. About the author. Acknowledgements. List of tables and figures. List of abbreviations. Summary of key facts. When to introduce solids . Key facts. Weaning and complementary feeding. The UK recommendation for introducing solid foods. Evidence relating to the six month exclusive breastfeeding recommendation. Energy and growth. Risk of gastrointestinal infection. Overweight and obesity. Development of allergies. Iron status. Iron status in developed and developing countries. UK infant iron levels at six months. Maternal iron supplementation. Infant iron supplementation. Vitamin D. The recommended age for introduction of solids in different countries. ESPGHAN: no disadvantage of introducing solids at four to six months. References. How to introduce solids. Key facts. Current guidelines. First and early foods. Later foods. Stages. Texture and finger foods. Food groups. Current advice on introducing solids. DH/NHS/Unicef 'Weaning' booklet. NHS 'Birth to five' book. FSA 'Feeding your baby' booklet. NHS/Unicef/DH 'introducing solid foods'. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Other information sources. Research and advice on introducing solids. Meat as a first food. Milk. Bread. Salt. Gluten. Introduction of solids and potential allergens. Food acceptance. Timing of introduction of solids. Homemade and commercial ready-made complementary foods. Proportion of food from different food groups. Perceptions of a healthy infant diet. Demonstrating feeding skills. Responsive feeding. Baby-led weaning. Introducing solids: summary. References. The dietary requirements of infants. Key facts. Changes in infants' nutritional needs during growth. Energy recommendations. Role of milk in energy provision following the introduction of solids. Fat intake. Dietary fat recommendations in the UK. Dietary fat recommendations in other countries. Fat intake, growth and development. Fat intake and later obesity. Quality of fat intake and cardiovascular health. Essential fatty acids. Suggestions for total fat intake. A conservative suggestion for fat intake in the UK. Recommended intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Recommended and suggested saturated fat intake. Body weight. Overweight and obesity. Dietary fibre. Measurement of dietary fibre and recommendations. Fibre intake. Fibre recommendations and suggestions. Benefits of fibre intake. Concerns regarding a high fibre diet. Suggested fibre recommendations for infants in the UK. The recommendations for non-milk extrinsic sugars and starch. The recommendation for protein. The recommendation for iron. The recommendation for iron. Effect of ID and IDA on infant development. Serum ferritin at birth and later risk of ID. Maternal IDA and later infant risk of IDA. Iron status after six months of age: IDA. IDA at eight months. IDA at nine months. IDA at 12 months. Iron status after six months of age: ID. ID at nine months. ID at 12 months. Complementary feeding and iron. Meat and fish. NMES. Commercial infant foods. Milk intake. Fibre intake. Enhancers of non-haem iron absorption. The recommendation for zinc. The recommendation for vitamin A. The recommendation for vitamin D. The recommendation for calcium. The recommendation for iodine. References. Meeting dietary requirements. Key facts. Meeting dietary requirements. Energy recommendations. Suggested fat intake. Amount of solids before fat required. Fat content of foods. Suggested daily intake of fat for infants. Number of tablespoons of food to meet daily fat requirements. Saturated fat. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fibre intake. Number of portions to provide 0.5 g of fibre. NMES. Iron. Zinc. Common early purees, mashes and baby rice: energy, fat, iron, zinc and fibre. Increasing the energy, fat and iron content of purees and mashes. Vitamin A. Vitamin D. Calcium. Iodine. References . Food intake: food groups and portion sizes. Key facts. Food groups. Number of food groups for infants. Number of portions from each food group. Portion size. Meeting energy requirements: number of portions and portion size. Verifying food group suggestions. Verifying food group suggestions: energy. Verifying food group suggestions: fat. Verifying food group suggestions: fibre. Verifying food group suggestions: energy, fat and fibre. Verifying food group suggestions: iron. Verifying food group suggestions: zinc. Verifying food group suggestions: vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium and iodine. Summary of food group combination information. Progression of complementary feeding by food group combination. Pictorial representation of infant food groups. Pictorial representation of food intake for adults and children: frequency and portion size. Infant guidelines on the frequency of intake of food from different food groups. Updating guidelines on food group frequencies. Suggested pictorial representation of proportional intake from food groups for infants. References. Appendix. Tables. Websites. Index