Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook

1st Edition

By Everett Baxter Jr.

CRC Press

610 pages | 669 Color Illus.

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Hardback: 9781498701440
pub: 2015-05-20
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Description

Crime scene investigators are the foundation for every criminal investigation. The admissibility and persuasiveness of evidence in court, and in turn, the success of a case, is largely dependent upon the evidence being properly collected, recorded, and handled for future analysis by investigators and forensic analysts in the lab. Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook is the most complete, one-stop practical reference for law enforcement and crime scene professionals as well as students looking to enter the field.

The book provides step-by-step methods and best practice protocols for effectively finding, recognizing, recording, collecting, preserving, handling, and packaging evidence. With more than 650 full color photos and illustrations the book covers:

  • The investigative team and its responsibilities
  • The rules for forensic search and seizure
  • Proper documentation of evidence via note-taking, photography, and sketching
  • Search patterns and the special considerations for various searches
  • The use of alternative light sources
  • Presumptive tests via luminol and other methods
  • Latent fingerprint processing
  • Evidence collection and packaging
  • Serological, trace, firearms, toolmark, footwear, tire, and digital evidence
  • Injury documentation
  • Appendices with a full compliment of sample forms, equipment lists, and checklists to assist in crime scene investigation

A special considerations section reviews topics such as shooting scene and bloodstain documentation, clandestine graves and scattered human remains, fire scenes, and questioned document evidence. The final chapters examine how to develop a working plan and processing methodology as well as effective report writing. This book is a must-have reference for experienced forensic, crime scene, and investigative professionals as well as students in forensic science programs looking to enter the field.

A specially developed companion lab exercise workbook—The Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook (ISBN: 978-1-4987-0142-6)—is also available for purchase and can be used in conjunction with this handbook, both for group training purposes or for individuals looking for hands-on self-study.

Reviews

"Baxter specializes in crime scene investigation, and his expertise is apparent throughout the handbook he authored to accompany his courses on the subject. The volume illustrates and discusses, step-by-step, best practices for recognizing evidence and recording, collecting, and preserving it. Forget the CSI television programs—this volume provides a fascinating look at crime scene investigation by a real expert."

—K. Evans, Indiana State University, in CHOICE

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Investigative Team

Investigative Team and Their Responsibilities

Bibliography

Forensic Search and Seizure

Introduction

Standing

Legal Means to Process Scene

Exclusionary Rule

Forensic Evidence

Blood, DNA, Body Samples

Nontestimonial Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Important Court Cases

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

DOCUMENTATION

Note Taking

Purpose of Documentation

Key Elements of a Properly Documented Crime Scene

Field Notes

Task Lists/To-Do Lists

Note Categories

Preformatted Note Forms

Vehicle Documentation

Notes

Bibliography

Photography

Artistic Photography

Police Photography

Stop and Exposure

Aperture (F/Stop)

Depth of Field

Shutter Speed

ISO

Artificial Lighting

Hard Light versus Soft Light

Crime Scene Photography

Categories of Photographs

Successful Photographs

Photographic Psychology

Photograph Admissibility into Court

Crime Scene Photography: Overall Photographs

Crime Scene Photography: Midrange Photographs

Crime Scene Photography: Close-Up Photographs

Photographs with Evidence Markers

Examination Quality Photographs

Victim/Suspect/Witness Photographs

Officer-Involved Shootings

Vehicle Photography

Collision or Accident Photography

Other Uses of Evidence Photographs

Aerial Photography

Adding to Aerial Photographs

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Important Case Law

Bibliography

Sketching

Uses of Sketches and Forensic Maps

Determining When to Create a Sketch or Forensic Map

Categories of Sketches

Sketch versus Forensic Map

Sketch Information and Format

Sketch Admissibility into Court

Types of Sketches

Measuring Devices

Measuring Methods

Note about Measuring Techniques

Creating a Sketch

Measuring Methods for Structures

Use of Table or Measurement Log

Creating a Final Sketch

Making Your Rough Sketch Permanent

Three-Dimensional Sketches

Computer-Generated Symbols

Sketches

Bibliography

LOCATING EVIDENCE

Crime Scene Searching Techniques

Search Patterns

Information Provided Prior to Search

Intrusiveness of the Search

Special Considerations

Additional Searching Techniques

Search Problems

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

References

Alternate Light Source

Electromagnetic Spectrum

How We See Objects

White Light

Light

Photoluminescence

Fluorescent Effect

Filters

Alternate Light Source

Other Uses of the ALS

Painting with Light Revisited

IR/UV Photography

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

References

Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements

Presumptive Tests

Types of Presumptive Tests

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Chemical Enhancements

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Cleaning Chemicals

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Confirmatory Tests for Blood

Semen

Note on Shelf Life

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

References

Latent Fingerprint Development

Introduction

Attempts to Avoid Detection

Fingerprint Characteristics

Fingerprint Makeup

Point of Clarification

Uses of Fingerprints

Things to Consider before Fingerprinting

Three Categories of Fingerprints

Training is Important

Experimentation at the Scene

Types of Brushes

Proper Uses of Brushes

Powders

Clear Lifting Tape

Latent Fingerprint Backing Cards

Fingerprint Lifting Aids

Applying Tape to Surfaces Techniques

Attaching Tape to Backing Card Techniques

Extending a Backing Card

Using 2" Tape to Make Palm-Sized Tape

Trim Ends of Tape

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Hinge Lifters

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Rubber/Gel Lifters

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Special Lifting Tape

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Forensic Sil

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Clear Glue

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Mikrosil

Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Additional Techniques

Incidental Marks on the Lifting Tape

Powder Processing Methods

Additional Fingerprint Development Techniques

Chemical Processing

Precautionary Statement

Dye Stains for Post Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Additional Processing Methods

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Paper Evidence

Developing Latent Fingerprint on Adhesive Side of Tape

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Blood-Contaminated Evidence

Developing Latent Fingerprints on the Skin

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Fire Scene Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Fingerprint Flowcharts

References

Evidence Collection and Packaging

Single Item of Evidence versus Multiple Items Collected Together

Evidence Collection Methods

Evidence Packaging

Packaging, Labeling, and Sealing

Protection of Evidence from Loss, Cross-Contamination, or Other Alterations

Decontamination of Equipment

Control Samples

Chain of Custody

Evidence Numbering

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Bibliography

TYPES OF EVIDENCE

Physical Evidence

Physical Evidence

Characteristics of Physical Evidence

Locard's Exchange Principle

Categories of Physical Evidence

Personal Protective Equipment

Physical Evidence and the Investigative Questions

Clothing Documentation

Photographs

Cut Clothing

Torn Clothing

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Bibliography

Serological Evidence

DNA

Sources of DNA

Importance of DNA Evidence

DNA Evidence

DNA Transfer/Contamination in Fingerprint Processing

Types of Biological/Serological Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Buccal Swabs

DNA Issues

Bibliography

Trace Evidence

Sources of Trace Evidence (Include but Are Not Limited To)

Types of Trace Evidence (Include but Are Not Limited To)

Value of Trace Evidence

Bibliography

Firearms and Toolmark Evidence

Introduction

Five Firearms Styles

Firearm Bore

Ammunition

Examination of Firearms Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Gunshot Residue

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Toolmarks

Types of Toolmarks

Quality of the Toolmark

Knives

Value of Toolmark Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Bibliography

Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Introduction

Usefulness of Footwear Impressions

Footwear Impression Formation

Locating Impressions

Known/Exemplar/Alibi Footwear

Tire Impressions

Usefulness of Tire Impressions

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Known/Exemplar/Alibi Tires

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Digital Evidence

Introduction

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Injury Documentation

Injury Documentation

Examination and Documentation of Injuries Using the ALS

Photographs

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Bibliography

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Shooting Scene Documentation

Ballistics

Proper Documentation of Shooting Scene

Bullet Defect Labeling

Proper Measurements to Document Bullet Defects

Ricochets

Glass

Shooting Scene Confirmatory Tests

Photography

Photographing Bullet Defects as a Measuring Tool

Sketches

Notes

Bullet Defect Characteristics

Evidence Collection

Bibliography

Bloodstain Documentation

Introduction

Bloodstain Terminology

Additional Terms to Be Aware Of

Additional Areas to Be Aware Of

Photo Documentation Technique for Bloodstains

Clothing

Photographs

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Clandestine Graves and Scattered Human Remains

Introduction

Forensic Botany

Forensic Entomology

Geology

Geophysics

Archaeology

Site Evaluation

Exhumation Techniques

Special Consideration

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Fire Scenes

Fire Scene Documentation and Evidence Collection

Types of Fire Scenes

Fire

Fire Investigation Terminology

Burn Patterns and Indicators

Four Acceptable Fire Causes

What Your Evidence Must Show

Additional Discussion: Accidental Ignition Sources

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Arson Accelerants

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Control Sample

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Questioned Document Evidence

Introduction

Importance of Questioned Documents Examinations

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

Develop a Working Plan and Processing Methodology

Develop a Working Plan

Processing Methodology

Evidence Located during Subsequent Searches

Bibliography

Report Writing

Author's Final Report Format

Primary Scene Report

Secondary or Assisting Reports

"Cover"Reports

Skill and Knowledge Level

Analysis Reports

Technical Review

Identify Your Audience

Case File Management

A: Search Waivers

B: Sample Forms

Additional Camera Equipment

Equipment Lists

E: Fingerprint Flowcharts

F: Personal Protective Equipment

G: Trajectory Kits

Glossary

About the Author

With over 22 years combined law enforcement experience, Everett Baxter served as a licensed paramedic in the State of Oklahoma acquiring extensive training and experience in medical emergencies and the mechanism of injury. He holds an Associate in Applied Science from Oklahoma City Community College and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry from the University of Oklahoma specializing in Emergency Medical Technology. As a member of the Oklahoma City Police Department's Crime Scene Unit he expanded on his medical and scientific education with numerous courses including bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting scene reconstruction, fingerprinting and forensic mapping. He currently teaches a basic Crime Scene Investigations course for the Oklahoma City Police Department and is an adjunct professor at the local college teaching Technical Investigations, police photography, and Basic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    LAW026000
    LAW / Criminal Law / General
    LAW041000
    LAW / Forensic Science