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1st Edition

Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook




ISBN 9781498701440
Published May 20, 2015 by CRC Press
610 Pages - 669 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Crime scene investigators are the foundation for every criminal investigation. The admissibility and persuasiveness of evidence in court, and in turn, the success of a case, is largely dependent upon the evidence being properly collected, recorded, and handled for future analysis by investigators and forensic analysts in the lab. Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook is the most complete, one-stop practical reference for law enforcement and crime scene professionals as well as students looking to enter the field.

The book provides step-by-step methods and best practice protocols for effectively finding, recognizing, recording, collecting, preserving, handling, and packaging evidence. With more than 650 full color photos and illustrations the book covers:

  • The investigative team and its responsibilities
  • The rules for forensic search and seizure
  • Proper documentation of evidence via note-taking, photography, and sketching
  • Search patterns and the special considerations for various searches
  • The use of alternative light sources
  • Presumptive tests via luminol and other methods
  • Latent fingerprint processing
  • Evidence collection and packaging
  • Serological, trace, firearms, toolmark, footwear, tire, and digital evidence
  • Injury documentation
  • Appendices with a full compliment of sample forms, equipment lists, and checklists to assist in crime scene investigation

A special considerations section reviews topics such as shooting scene and bloodstain documentation, clandestine graves and scattered human remains, fire scenes, and questioned document evidence. The final chapters examine how to develop a working plan and processing methodology as well as effective report writing. This book is a must-have reference for experienced forensic, crime scene, and investigative professionals as well as students in forensic science programs looking to enter the field.

A specially developed companion lab exercise workbook—The Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook (ISBN: 978-1-4987-0142-6)—is also available for purchase and can be used in conjunction with this handbook, both for group training purposes or for individuals looking for hands-on self-study.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Investigative Team
Investigative Team and Their Responsibilities
Bibliography
Forensic Search and Seizure
Introduction
Standing
Legal Means to Process Scene
Exclusionary Rule
Forensic Evidence
Blood, DNA, Body Samples
Nontestimonial Evidence
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Important Court Cases
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
DOCUMENTATION
Note Taking
Purpose of Documentation
Key Elements of a Properly Documented Crime Scene
Field Notes
Task Lists/To-Do Lists
Note Categories
Preformatted Note Forms
Vehicle Documentation
Notes
Bibliography
Photography
Artistic Photography
Police Photography
Stop and Exposure
Aperture (F/Stop)
Depth of Field
Shutter Speed
ISO
Artificial Lighting
Hard Light versus Soft Light
Crime Scene Photography
Categories of Photographs
Successful Photographs
Photographic Psychology
Photograph Admissibility into Court
Crime Scene Photography: Overall Photographs
Crime Scene Photography: Midrange Photographs
Crime Scene Photography: Close-Up Photographs
Photographs with Evidence Markers
Examination Quality Photographs
Victim/Suspect/Witness Photographs
Officer-Involved Shootings
Vehicle Photography
Collision or Accident Photography
Other Uses of Evidence Photographs
Aerial Photography
Adding to Aerial Photographs
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Important Case Law
Bibliography
Sketching
Uses of Sketches and Forensic Maps
Determining When to Create a Sketch or Forensic Map
Categories of Sketches
Sketch versus Forensic Map
Sketch Information and Format
Sketch Admissibility into Court
Types of Sketches
Measuring Devices
Measuring Methods
Note about Measuring Techniques
Creating a Sketch
Measuring Methods for Structures
Use of Table or Measurement Log
Creating a Final Sketch
Making Your Rough Sketch Permanent
Three-Dimensional Sketches
Computer-Generated Symbols
Sketches
Bibliography
LOCATING EVIDENCE
Crime Scene Searching Techniques
Search Patterns
Information Provided Prior to Search
Intrusiveness of the Search
Special Considerations
Additional Searching Techniques
Search Problems
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
References
Alternate Light Source
Electromagnetic Spectrum
How We See Objects
White Light
Light
Photoluminescence
Fluorescent Effect
Filters
Alternate Light Source
Other Uses of the ALS
Painting with Light Revisited
IR/UV Photography
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
References
Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements
Presumptive Tests
Types of Presumptive Tests
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Chemical Enhancements
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Cleaning Chemicals
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Confirmatory Tests for Blood
Semen
Note on Shelf Life
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
References
Latent Fingerprint Development
Introduction
Attempts to Avoid Detection
Fingerprint Characteristics
Fingerprint Makeup
Point of Clarification
Uses of Fingerprints
Things to Consider before Fingerprinting
Three Categories of Fingerprints
Training is Important
Experimentation at the Scene
Types of Brushes
Proper Uses of Brushes
Powders
Clear Lifting Tape
Latent Fingerprint Backing Cards
Fingerprint Lifting Aids
Applying Tape to Surfaces Techniques
Attaching Tape to Backing Card Techniques
Extending a Backing Card
Using 2" Tape to Make Palm-Sized Tape
Trim Ends of Tape
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Hinge Lifters
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Rubber/Gel Lifters
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Special Lifting Tape
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Forensic Sil
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Clear Glue
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Mikrosil
Lifting the Latent Fingerprint Using Additional Techniques
Incidental Marks on the Lifting Tape
Powder Processing Methods
Additional Fingerprint Development Techniques
Chemical Processing
Precautionary Statement
Dye Stains for Post Cyanoacrylate Fuming
Additional Processing Methods
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Paper Evidence
Developing Latent Fingerprint on Adhesive Side of Tape
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Blood-Contaminated Evidence
Developing Latent Fingerprints on the Skin
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Fire Scene Evidence
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Fingerprint Flowcharts
References
Evidence Collection and Packaging
Single Item of Evidence versus Multiple Items Collected Together
Evidence Collection Methods
Evidence Packaging
Packaging, Labeling, and Sealing
Protection of Evidence from Loss, Cross-Contamination, or Other Alterations
Decontamination of Equipment
Control Samples
Chain of Custody
Evidence Numbering
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Bibliography
TYPES OF EVIDENCE
Physical Evidence
Physical Evidence
Characteristics of Physical Evidence
Locard's Exchange Principle
Categories of Physical Evidence
Personal Protective Equipment
Physical Evidence and the Investigative Questions
Clothing Documentation
Photographs
Cut Clothing
Torn Clothing
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Bibliography
Serological Evidence
DNA
Sources of DNA
Importance of DNA Evidence
DNA Evidence
DNA Transfer/Contamination in Fingerprint Processing
Types of Biological/Serological Evidence
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Buccal Swabs
DNA Issues
Bibliography
Trace Evidence
Sources of Trace Evidence (Include but Are Not Limited To)
Types of Trace Evidence (Include but Are Not Limited To)
Value of Trace Evidence
Bibliography
Firearms and Toolmark Evidence
Introduction
Five Firearms Styles
Firearm Bore
Ammunition
Examination of Firearms Evidence
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Gunshot Residue
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Toolmarks
Types of Toolmarks
Quality of the Toolmark
Knives
Value of Toolmark Evidence
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Bibliography
Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence
Introduction
Usefulness of Footwear Impressions
Footwear Impression Formation
Locating Impressions
Known/Exemplar/Alibi Footwear
Tire Impressions
Usefulness of Tire Impressions
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Known/Exemplar/Alibi Tires
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Digital Evidence
Introduction
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Injury Documentation
Injury Documentation
Examination and Documentation of Injuries Using the ALS
Photographs
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Bibliography
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Shooting Scene Documentation
Ballistics
Proper Documentation of Shooting Scene
Bullet Defect Labeling
Proper Measurements to Document Bullet Defects
Ricochets
Glass
Shooting Scene Confirmatory Tests
Photography
Photographing Bullet Defects as a Measuring Tool
Sketches
Notes
Bullet Defect Characteristics
Evidence Collection
Bibliography
Bloodstain Documentation
Introduction
Bloodstain Terminology
Additional Terms to Be Aware Of
Additional Areas to Be Aware Of
Photo Documentation Technique for Bloodstains
Clothing
Photographs
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Clandestine Graves and Scattered Human Remains
Introduction
Forensic Botany
Forensic Entomology
Geology
Geophysics
Archaeology
Site Evaluation
Exhumation Techniques
Special Consideration
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Fire Scenes
Fire Scene Documentation and Evidence Collection
Types of Fire Scenes
Fire
Fire Investigation Terminology
Burn Patterns and Indicators
Four Acceptable Fire Causes
What Your Evidence Must Show
Additional Discussion: Accidental Ignition Sources
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Arson Accelerants
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Control Sample
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Questioned Document Evidence
Introduction
Importance of Questioned Documents Examinations
Photography
Sketches
Notes
Evidence Collection
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Develop a Working Plan and Processing Methodology
Develop a Working Plan
Processing Methodology
Evidence Located during Subsequent Searches
Bibliography
Report Writing
Author's Final Report Format
Primary Scene Report
Secondary or Assisting Reports
"Cover"Reports
Skill and Knowledge Level
Analysis Reports
Technical Review
Identify Your Audience
Case File Management
A: Search Waivers
B: Sample Forms
Additional Camera Equipment
Equipment Lists
E: Fingerprint Flowcharts
F: Personal Protective Equipment
G: Trajectory Kits
Glossary

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Author(s)

Biography

With over 22 years combined law enforcement experience, Everett Baxter served as a licensed paramedic in the State of Oklahoma acquiring extensive training and experience in medical emergencies and the mechanism of injury. He holds an Associate in Applied Science from Oklahoma City Community College and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry from the University of Oklahoma specializing in Emergency Medical Technology. As a member of the Oklahoma City Police Department's Crime Scene Unit he expanded on his medical and scientific education with numerous courses including bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting scene reconstruction, fingerprinting and forensic mapping. He currently teaches a basic Crime Scene Investigations course for the Oklahoma City Police Department and is an adjunct professor at the local college teaching Technical Investigations, police photography, and Basic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

Featured Author Profiles

Author - Everett  Baxter Jr.
Author

Everett Baxter Jr.

Owner, Everett Baxter Jr Forensics, LLC
Moore, Oklahoma, USA

Learn more about Everett Baxter Jr. »

Reviews

"Baxter specializes in crime scene investigation, and his expertise is apparent throughout the handbook he authored to accompany his courses on the subject. The volume illustrates and discusses, step-by-step, best practices for recognizing evidence and recording, collecting, and preserving it. Forget the CSI television programs—this volume provides a fascinating look at crime scene investigation by a real expert."
—K. Evans, Indiana State University, in CHOICE

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