Composite Materials : Mechanics, Manufacturing and Modeling book cover
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Composite Materials
Mechanics, Manufacturing and Modeling



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ISBN 9780367687557
March 11, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
632 Pages 232 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Composite materials find diverse applications in areas including aerospace, automotive, architecture, energy, marine and military. This comprehensive textbook discusses three important aspects including manufacturing, mechanics and dynamic mechanical analysis of composites.

The textbook comprehensively presents fundamental concepts of composites, manufacturing techniques and advanced topics including as advances in composite materials in various fields, viscoelastic behavior of composites, toughness of composites and Nano mechanics of composites in a single volume. Topics such as polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, micromechanical behavior of a lamina, micromechanics and nanomechanics are discussed in detail.

Aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students for a course on composite materials in the fields of mechanical engineering, automobile engineering and electronics engineering, this book:

  • Discusses mechanics and manufacturing techniques of composite materials in a single volume.
  • Explains viscoelastic behavior of composites in a comprehensive manner.
  • Covers fatigue, creep and effect of thermal stresses on composites.
  • Discusses concepts including bending, buckling and vibration of laminated plates in detail.
  • Explains dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of composites.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 What is a composite?
1.2 Why composites?
1.3 History of composites
1.4 Classification of composites
1.4.1 Fiber reinforced composites
1.4.2 Laminated composites
1.4.3 Particulate composites
1.4.4 Combination of composites
1.5 Nanomaterials
1.6 Applications of composite materials
1.6.1 Aerospace applications
1.6.2 Missile applications
1.6.3 Launch vehicle applications
1.6.4 Railways
1.6.5 Sports Equipments
1.6.6 Automotives
1.6.7 Infrastructure
1.6.8 Medical applications
1.6.9 Renewables

Chapter 2: Materials
2.1 Fibers
2.2 Types of fibers
2.3 Natural fibers
2.3.1 Silk fiber
2.3.2 Wool fiber
2.3.3 Spider silk
2.3.4 Sinew fiber
2.3.5 Camel hair
2.3.6 Cotton fiber
2.3.7 Jute fiber
2.3.8 Kenaf fiber
2.3.9 Hemp fiber
2.3.10 Flax fiber
2.3.11 Ramie fiber
2.3.12 Sisal fiber
2.3.13 Bamboo fiber
2.3.14 Maize (Corn) fiber
2.3.15 Coir fiber
2.3.16 Banana fiber
2.3.17 Kapok fiber
2.3.18 Abaca fiber
2.3.19 Raffia palm fiber
2.3.20 Sugarcane fiber
2.3.21 Asbestos fiber
2.3.22 Glass wool
2.3.23 Rock wool
2.3.24 Ceramic wool
2.4 Advanced fibers
2.4.1 Boron fiber
2.4.2 Carbon fiber
2.4.2.1 Fabrication of C fiber using PAN
2.4.2.2 Fabrication of C fiber using pitch
2.4.3 Glass fiber
2.4.4 Aramid (Kevlar) fiber
2.5 Woven Fabric
2.6 Matrices
2.6.1 Polymer matrix composite
2.6.2 Metal matrix composites
2.6.3 Ceramic matrix composites
2.6.4 Carbon-Carbon composites
2.7 Fiber surface treatment
2.7.1 Graphite fiber treatment
2.7.2 Glass fiber treatment
2.7.3 Polymer fiber treatment
2.8 Fiber content, density and void content
2.9 Load transfer mechanism

Chapter 3: Manufacturing Techniques
3.1 Polymer matrix composites
3.1.1 Thermoset matrix composites
3.1.2 Thermoplastic matrix composites
3.2 Metal-matrix composites
3.2.1 Liquid-state processes
3.2.2 Solid-state processes
3.2.3 In-situ processes
3.3 Ceramic matrix composites
3.3.1 Cold pressing and sintering
3.3.2 Hot pressing
3.3.3 Reaction bonding
3.3.4 Infiltration
3.3.5 Polymer infiltration and pyrolysis
3.4 Miscellaneous techniques
3.4.1 Resin film infusion
3.4.2 Elastic reservoir molding
3.4.3 Tube rolling
3.4.4 Compocasting
3.4.5 Spark plasma sintering
3.4.6 Vortex addition technique
3.4.7 Pressureless infiltration process
3.4.8 Ultrasonic infiltration
3.4.9 Chemical vapor deposition
3.4.10 Physical vapor deposition
3.5 Basics of curing
3.5.1 Degree of curing
3.5.2 Curing cycle
3.5.3 Viscosity
3.5.4 Resin flow
3.5.5 Consolidation
3.5.6 Gel-time test
3.5.7 Shrinkage
3.5.8 Voids

Chapter 4: Mechanics of Composites
4.1 Lamina
4.2 Laminates
4.3 Tensors
4.4 Deformation
4.5 Strain
4.6 Stress
4.7 Equilibrium
4.8 Boundary conditions
4.8.1 Tractions
4.8.2 Free surface boundary conditions
4.9 Continuity conditions
4.9.1 Displacement continuity
4.9.2 Traction continuity
4.10 Compatibility
4.11 Constitutive equations
4.12 Plane stress
4.13 Plane strain
4.14 Generalized plane problems 
4.15 Strain energy density
4.16 Minimum principles
4.16.1 Minimum potential energy
4.16.2 Minimum complementary energy
4.16.3 Bounds and uniqueness
4.17 Effective property concept
4.18 Generalized Hooke’s law
4.19 Material symmetry
4.19.1 Monoclinic material
4.19.2 Orthotropic material
4.19.3 Transversely isotropic material
4.19.4 Isotropic material

Chapter 5: Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Composites
5.1 Stresses and deformation
5.2 Maxwell-Betti reciprocal theorem
5.3 Material properties relationship
5.4 Typical properties of materials
5.5 Interpretation of stress-strain relations
5.6 Free thermal strains
5.7 Effect of free thermal strains on stress-strain relations
5.8 Effect of free moisture strains on stress-strain relations

Chapter 6: Micromechanics
6.1 Volume and mass fractions
6.1.1 Volume fractions
6.1.2 Mass fractions
6.2 Density
6.3 Void content
6.4 Evaluation of elastic moduli
6.4.1 Strength of materials approach
6.4.2 Semi-empirical models
6.4.3 Elasticity approach

Chapter 7: Plane Stress Assumption
7.1 Stresses and strains under plane-stress condition
7.2 Numerical results
7.3 Effects of free thermal and free moisture strains

Chapter 8: Global Coordinate System: Plane Stress Stress-Strain Relations
8.1 Transformation equations
8.2 Transformed reduced compliance
8.3 Transformed reduced stiffnesses
8.4 Engineering properties in global coordinates
8.5 Mutual influence coefficients
8.6 Free thermal and moisture strains
8.7 Effects of free thermal and moisture strains on plane stress stress-strain relations in global coordinate system

Chapter 9: Classical Lamination Theory
9.1 Laminate nomenclature
9.2 The Kirchhoff hypothesis
9.3 Effects of the Kirchhoff hypothesis
9.4 Laminate strains
9.5 Laminate stresses
9.6 Stress distributions
9.6.1 [0/90]s laminate subjected to known εx0
9.6.2 [0/90]s laminate subjected to known kx0
9.7 Force and moment resultants

Chapter 10: The ABD Matrix
10.1 Force and moment resultants
10.2 The ABD matrix
10.3 Classification of laminates
10.3.1 Symmetric laminates
10.3.2 Balanced laminates
10.3.3 Symmetric balanced laminates
10.3.4 Cross-ply laminates
10.3.5 Symmetric cross-ply laminates

Chapter 11: Failure Theories for Composite Materials
11.1 Theories of failure
11.2 Hill’s theory of failure
11.3 Tsai-Hill theory of failure
11.4 Hoffman theory of failure
11.5 Maximum stress failure theory
11.6 Maximum strain theory
11.7 The Tsai-Wu failure criterion
11.8 Hashin theory

Chapter 12: Mechanics of Short-Fiber Reinforced Composites
12.1 Notation
12.2 Average properties
12.3 Theoretical models
12.3.1 Cox shear lag model
12.3.2 Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion
12.3.3 Dilute Eshelby’s model
12.3.4 Mori-Tanaka model
12.3.5 Chow model
12.3.6 Modified Halpin-Tsai or Finegan model
12.3.7 Hashin-Shtrikman model
12.3.8 Lielens model
12.3.9 Self-consistent model
12.4 Fast fourier transform numerical homogenization methods
12.4.1 FFT based homogenization method
12.4.2 Implementation of FFT based homogenization method

Chapter 13: Toughness of Composite Materials
13.1 Basics
13.2 Interfacial fracture
13.3 Work of fracture
13.3.1 Deformation of matrix
13.3.2 Fiber fracture
13.3.3 Interfacial de-bonding
13.3.4 Frictional sliding and fiber pull-out
13.3.5 Effect of microstructure
13.4 Sub-critical crack growth
13.4.1 Fatigue
13.4.2 Stress-corrosion cracking

Chapter 14: Inter-laminar Stresses
14.1 Finite width coupon
14.2 Equilibrium considerations
14.3 Inter-laminar Fyz shear force
14.3.1 Uniform strain loading
14.3.2 Curvature loading
14.4 Inter-laminar Mz moment
14.4.1 Uniform strain loading
14.4.2 Curvature loading
14.5 Inter-laminar Fzx shear force
14.5.1 Uniform strain loading
14.5.2 Curvature loading

Chapter 15: Laminated Plates
15.1 Governing equations
15.2 Governing equations (in displacement form)
15.3 Simplification of governing equations
15.3.1 Symmetric laminates
15.3.2 Symmetric balanced laminates
15.3.3 Symmetric cross-ply laminates

Chapter 16: Viscoelastic & Dynamic Behavior of Composites
16.1 Viscoelastic behavior of composites
16.1.1 Boltzmann superposition integral
16.1.2 Spring-dashpot models
16.1.3 Quasi-elastic approach
16.1.4 Complex modulus
16.1.5 Elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle
16.2 Dynamic behavior
16.2.1 Longitudinal wave propagation
16.2.2 Flexural vibration
16.2.3 Damping analysis

Chapter 17: Mechanical Testing of Composites
17.1 Societies for testing standards
17.2 Objectives of mechanical testing
17.3 Effect of anisotropy
17.4 Nature and quality of data
17.5 Samples and specimen for testing
17.6 Miscellaneous issues with testing
17.7 Primary properties
17.7.1 Microscopy
17.7.2 Ultrasonic Inspection
17.7.3 X-ray inspection
17.7.4 Thermography
17.8 Physical properties
17.8.1 Density
17.8.2 Fiber volume fraction
17.8.3 Void content
17.8.4 Moisture content
17.9 Tensile and compressive testing
17.9.1 Rosette principle
17.9.2 Tensile test
17.9.3 Compression test
17.10 Shear testing
17.10.1 Two-rail shear test
17.10.2 Three-rail shear test

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Author(s)

Biography

Sumit Sharma is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (NIT) Jalandhar, India. His research interests include mechanics of composite materials, molecular dynamics, finite element modeling, strength of materials, fracture mechanics, mechanical vibrations, engineering drawing, theory of machines and dynamics of machines. He has been extensively working in the field of composite materials and has published more than 30 research papers in journals of national and international repute. He is the member of ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) and life member of Indian Society of Mechanical Engineers (ISME).