1st Edition

Computational Models for CO2 Geo-sequestration & Compressed Air Energy Storage

Edited By Rafid Al-Khoury, Jochen Bundschuh Copyright 2014
    574 Pages
    by CRC Press

    574 Pages
    by CRC Press

    A comprehensive mathematical and computational modeling of CO2 Geosequestration and Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy and environment are two interrelated issues of great concern to modern civilization. As the world population will soon reach eight billion, the demand for energy will dramatically increase, intensifying the use of fossil fuels. Utilization of fossil fuels is by far the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emission into the earth’s atmosphere. This unavoidable reality necessitates efforts to mitigate CO2 from indefi nitely being emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 geo-sequestration is currently considered to be a vital technology for this purpose. Meanwhile, and as fossil fuels will sooner or later be depleted, utilization of renewable energy resources is inevitable. Nowadays, wind and solar energy, being clean and sustainable, are gaining momentum. However, their availability is intermittent. This intermittent nature of solar and wind energy necessitates storing the produced energy at off-peak times for later use. Compressed air energy storage in subterranean caverns, aquifers and coal seams is currently considered to be a plausible technology for this purpose. CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage are thus vital technologies for current and future energy strategy development. These technologies can be made safe and cost-effective by utilizing computational tools capable of simulating the involved multiphysical phenomena and processes. Computational modeling of such systems is challenging and resource-consuming. Meeting such a challenge constitutes the focal point of this book.

    This book addresses comprehensive theoretical and computational modeling aspects of CO2 geosequestration and compressed air energy storage. The book consists of 16 chapters authored by prominent researchers in these two fi elds. The authors of the book endeavoured to present years of innovative work, making it available for a wide range of readers, including geoscientists, poromechanists, applied mathematicians, computational geoscientists, geologists and reservoir engineers.

    About the book series
    Editorial board
    Foreword by Jacob Bear
    Editors’ preface
    About the editors

    1. Geological CO2 sequestration and compressed air energy storage – An introduction
    Jochen Bundschuh & Rafid Al-Khoury
    1.1 Atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigation
    1.2 Geological CO2 sequestration
    1.3 Compressed air energy storage
    1.4 Computational modeling

    PART I: CO2 Geo-sequestration

    2. On the theory of CO2 geo-sequestration
    Mehdi Musivand Arzanfudi & Rafid Al-Khoury
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Definitions
    2.3 Averaging process
    2.4 Modeling approach
    2.5 General balance equations
    2.6 Balance equations for special cases
    2.7 Constitutive relationships
    2.8 Field equations
    2.9 Conclusion

    PART I.I: Reactive transport modeling

    3. Modeling multiscale-multiphase-multicomponent reactive flows in porous media: Application to CO2 sequestration and enhanced geothermal energy using PFLOTRAN
    Peter C. Lichtner & Satish Karra
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Single continuum
    3.3 Multiple interacting continua
    3.4 Numerical implementation
    3.5 Parallelization using the PETSc parallel framework
    3.6 Single component system
    3.7 Applications
    3.8 Conclusion

    4. Pore-network modeling of multi-component reactive transport under (variably-) saturated conditions
    Amir Raoof, Hamidreza M. Nick, S. Majid Hassanizadeh & Christopher J. Spiers
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Pore-network modeling
    4.3 Well-bore cement degradation
    4.4 Saturation dependent solute dispersivity

    5. Reactive transport modeling issues of CO2 geological storage
    Tianfu Xu & Liange Zheng
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Model description
    5.3 Fate of injected CO2
    5.4 Impact on the groundwater quality
    5.5 Modeling issues
    5.6 Conclusions

    PART I.II: Numerical modeling

    6. Role of computational science in geological storage of CO2
    Mojdeh Delshad, Reza Tavakoil & Mary F. Wheeler
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Compositional flow model
    6.3 Thermal energy equation
    6.4 Geochemistry model
    6.5 Petrophysical property model
    6.6 Computational results
    6.7 Ensemble kalman filter history matching methodology
    6.8 Summary and current extensions

    7. A robust implicit pressure explicit mass method for multi-phase multi-component flow including capillary pressure and buoyancy
    Florian Doster, Eirik Keilegavlen & Jan M. Nordbotten
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Physical background
    7.3 The impem algorithm
    7.4 Motivation for the discretization
    7.5 Comparison of different approaches
    7.6 Concluding remarks

    8. Simulation of CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers with geomechanical coupling
    Philip H.Winterfeld &Yu-ShuWu
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Simulator geomechanical equations
    8.3 Simulator conservation equations
    8.4 Discretization of single-porosity simulator conservation equations
    8.5 Multi-porosity flow model
    8.6 Geomechanical boundary conditions
    8.7 Rock property correlations
    8.8 Fluid property modules
    8.9 Example simulations
    8.10 Summary and conclusions

    9. Model development for the numerical simulation of CO2 storage in naturally fractured saline aquifers
    Jim Douglas, Jr., Felipe Pereira & Celestin Zemtsop
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 The single porosity problem
    9.3 Homogenization
    9.4 Thermodynamics
    9.5 Numerical simulations and results
    9.6 Conclusions

    10. Coupled partition of unity-level set finite element formulation for CO2 geo-sequestration
    Rafid Al-Khoury & Mojtaba Talebian
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Governing equations
    10.2.1 Equilibrium equations
    10.3 Mixed discretization scheme
    10.4 Verifications examples
    10.5 Conclusions

    PART I.III: Aquifer optimization

    11. Optimization and data assimilation for geological carbon storage
    David A. Cameron & Louis J. Durlofsky
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 A-priori optimization of well placement and control
    11.3 Data assimilation and sensor placement
    11.4 Aquifer model definition
    11.5 Results – a-priori well placement and control optimization
    11.6 Results – optimal sensor placement and data assimilation
    11.7 Concluding remarks

    12. Density-driven natural convection flow of CO2 in heterogeneous porous media
    Rouhollah Farajzadeh, Bernard Meulenbroek & Johannes Bruining
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Density-driven flow in heterogeneous media
    12.3 Analytical model for density-driven natural convection flow
    12.4 Summary
    12.5 Appendix 12a. Numerical solution of the equations

    PART II: Compressed air energy storage

    13. An introduction to the compressed air energy storage
    Reinhard Leithner & Lasse Nielsen
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Fundamentals of compressed air energy storages
    13.3 CAES-cycles – operated and planned
    13.4 Summary

    14. Simulation of an isobaric adiabatic compressed air energy storage combined cycle
    Lasse Nielsen, Dawei Qi, Niels Brinkmeier, Andreas Hauschke & Reinhard Leithner
    14.1 The ISACOAST-CC concept
    14.2 Simulation models
    14.3 Simulation results
    14.4 Summary

    15. Rigorous process simulation of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous media systems
    Lehua Pan & Curtis M. Oldenburg
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Background
    15.3 Methods
    15.4 Example PM-CAES simulation
    15.4.1 A note on time steps
    15.5 Conclusions

    16. Detailed system level simulation of compressed air energy storage
    Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan & Mandhapati Raju
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Background
    16.3 Caes plant operation
    16.4 Component modeling
    16.5 Modeling Huntorf CAES plant: A case study
    16.6 Conclusions

    Subject index


    Rafid Al-Khoury Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands; Jochen Bundschuh University of Southern Queensland (USQ).

    This book [...] is devoted to a detailed presentation of modeling of two particular topics in this vast area, namely CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage. The two topics seem at first view quite unconnected, but, as far as modeling is concerned, this is not the case: the basic balance equations of the subsurface system are the same, only some of the involved fluids change. This makes a common treatment in a volume quite suitable because one of the topics may take advantage of methods employed for the solution of the other. The volume contains a foreword by Jacob Bear, one of the giants in multiphase porous media mechanics, who is recently actively involved in CO2 underground sequestration; and sixteen chapters written by thirty-seven experts in their field. Each chapter is self-contained to a certain extent. [...] This volume [...] is first of all most timely and certainly useful for geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, mining and reservoir engineers, chemical engineers, to mention just a few, and certainly also to computational mechanists who will find there a plethora of useful information.

    Bernhard Schrefler, Professor Emeritus, University of Padua, September 2015