Concepts & Calculations in Analytical Chemistry, Featuring the Use of Excel
A Spreadsheet Approach
Concepts & Calculations in Analytical Chemistry: A Spreadsheet Approach offers a novel approach to learning the fundamentals of chemical equilibria using the flexibility and power of a spreadsheet program. Through a conceptual presentation of chemical principles, this text will allow the reader to produce and digest large assemblies of numerical data/calculations while still focusing on the chemistry. The chapters are arranged in a logical sequence, identifying almost every equilibrium scenario that an analytical chemist is likely to encounter. The spreadsheet calculations and graphics offer an excellent solution to otherwise time-consuming operations. Worked examples are included throughout the book, and student-tested problems are featured at the end of each chapter. Spreadsheet commands for QuattroPro, Quattro, and Lotus 1-2-3 are embedded in the text.
Concepts & Calculations in Analytical Chemistry: A Spreadsheet Approach has been designed to serve both as a supplement to an undergraduate quantitative analysis course or as a text in a graduate-level advanced analytical chemistry course. Professional chemists will also find this to be an excellent introduction to spreadsheet applications in the lab and a modern overview of analytical chemistry in a self-study format.
Table of Contents
FOREWORD. A SPECIAL WORD TO STUDENTS. INTRODUCTION. Stoichiometric Concepts. Spreadsheets in Chemical Calculations. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. Importance of Equilibrium Calculations. Reversible Reactions. Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium. Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant. Relation between Activity and Concentration. Equilibrium Expression for Various Types of Reactions. Factors Affecting Equilibrium. Constants. THE ROLE OF ACTIVITY IN EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS. Activity and the Equilibrium Expressions. The Ionic Strength of a Solution. The Debye-Hückel Theory of Strong Electrolytes. Activity Coefficient Corrections. Activity Coefficients of Ions. Activity Coefficients of Molecular Solutes. Activities and Equilibrium Calculations. ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM. Theories of Acids and Bases. Strengths of Acids and Bases. The Concept of pH. Expressing Concentrations by Means of Fractions of Dissociation, a. Derivation of a Expressions. Proton Balance Equations. Representation of Concentration. Graphical-Algebraic Solution of PBEs. Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations with the Spreadsheet. The Pointer Function in pH Calculations. METAL COMPLEX EQUILIBRIA. Introduction. General Metal-Complexii. Effect of pH on Metal-Complex Equilibria. Metal Complex Equilibria Involving Several Complexing Agents. Conditional Formation Constants. PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA. Factors Affecting Electrolyte Solubility. Solubility and Solubility Product. Factors Affecting Solubility Product Constants. Rules for Precipitation. Quantitative Relationship between Solubility and Solubility Products. The Common Ion Effect. Selective Precipitation. Conditional Solubility Product Constants. Calculations in Which pH Not Given. Side Reactions Involving the Cation. Lewis Bases Other Than the Precipitant. OXIDATION REDUCTION EQUILIBRIA. Half-Cell Reactions. Redox Stoichiometry. Expressions of Redox Equilibrium. Nernst Equation. Electrode Potentials, E and pE. Types of Half-Cells. Electrode Potential Sign Conventions. Factors That Affect Electrode Potentials. Effect of Concentration on Electrode Potentials. pE-Log Concentration Graphs, f, p, and K. Formal Potentials. Pourbaix Diagrams. TITRATIONS I. BRØNSTED ACIDS AND BASES. Nature of Titrations. Use of PBE to Derive Titration Curves. Weak Acid-Strong Base Curves. Weak Base-Strong Acid Curves. Calculation of Selected Points on Curve. Characterizing Titration Curves. Visual Acid-Base Indicators. One- and Two-Color Indicators. Titration Curve Calculus. Buffer Index. Sharpness Index and Titration Errors. Locating the Equivalence Point. Gran Method. TITRATIONS. II. METAL COMPLEX TITRATIONS. Derivation of Complexometric Titration Curve Equations. Role of pH and Auxiliary Ligands in Complexometric Titrations. Calculation of Selected Points on Curves. Metallochromic Indicators. Locating Endpoints. TITRATIONS III. REDOX TITRATIONS. Derivation of Titration Curve Equations. TITRATIONS IV. PRECIPITATION TITRATIONS. Titration Curve Equations. Mohr Titration. Titration of Mixtures of Halides. STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA. Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation. Precision and Accuracy. Classification of Errors. The Gaussian Error Function. Confidence Intervals and Confidence Limits. Statistical Analysis of Small Sets of Data. Comparison of Two Means. Propagation of Errors. Noise Function. SPECTROMETRY. Interaction of Matter and Electromagnetic Energy. Beer-Lambert Law. SEPARATION PROCESSES. GENERAL CONCEPTS. Fundamental Definitions. Separation Factor, a. Multistage Separartions. SOLVENT EXTRACTION EQUILIBRIA. ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIA. MULTISTAGE SEPARATION PROCESSES. Countercurrent Distribution. Chromatography. KINETIC METHODS IN ANALYSIS. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS. Potentiometric Methods. Spectrophotometric Methods. APPENDIX A: ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS. APPENDIX B: METAL COMPLEX FORMATION CONSTANTS. APPENDIX C: SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANTS. APPENDIX D: STANDARD OXIDATION POTENTIALS.