Concise Chemical Thermodynamics: 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Concise Chemical Thermodynamics

3rd Edition

By A.P.H. Peters

CRC Press

214 pages | 47 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-07-02
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Description

The first two editions of Concise Chemical Thermodynamics proved to be a very popular introduction to a subject many undergraduate students perceive to be difficult due to the underlying mathematics. With its concise explanations and clear examples, the text has for the past 40 years clarified for countless students one of the most complicated branches of science. Following in the tradition of its predecessors, this Third Edition continues to offer a practical, example-based exploration of a critical topic, maintaining academic rigor but eschewing complicated calculations.

Updated to reflect new concerns in the 21st century, this edition now includes:

  • An extensive outlook on the world’s current energy consumption and the role of renewable energy in the future
  • An example of an exothermic reaction through a discussion of the Mond process for extracting and purifying nickel
  • The use of Mathcad® to calculate a plot of Gibbs energy for a reaction mixture versus the extent of reaction
  • An explanation of the Lambda sensor, which reduces vehicle emissions
  • The use of FactSage software to calculate and describe the production of silicon in an arc (oven) furnace

This latest edition re-works problems that have proven to be the most difficult for students and adds several new ones to further amplify complex areas. The book also provides an updated list of suggested readings. Keeping pace with new technology and the shift in emphasis to green chemistry, this volume provides an up-to-date treatment of a foundational topic.

Table of Contents

Energy

The Realm of Thermodynamics

Energy Bookkeeping

Nature’s Driving Forces

Setting the Scene: Basic Ideas

System and Surroundings

Functions of State

Mechanical Work and Expanding Gases

The Absolute Temperature Scale

Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion

Forms of Renewable Energy

Solar Energy

Wind Energy

Hydroelectric Power

Geothermal Energy

Biomass Energy

References

Problems

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Statement of the First Law

Reversible Expansion of an Ideal Gas

Constant-Volume Processes

Constant-Pressure Processes

A New Function: Enthalpy

Relationship between ΔH and ΔU

Uses and Conventions of ΔH

Enthalpy Change of Reaction

Standard Enthalpies of Formation

The Many Uses of Δf H0 Data

References

Problems

Thermochemistry

Calorimetry

Bomb Calorimeters

Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Concepts of Heat Capacity

Combustion and Flame Temperatures

Variation of Reaction Enthalpies with Temperature

Bond Energies

Average Bond Dissociation Energies

References

Problems

Spontaneous Changes

Everyday Processes

Exothermicity: A Possible Criterion

Spontaneous Exothermic Processes

Spontaneous Processes Involving No Heat Change

Endothermic Processes

The Second Driving Force

Problems

Entropy

Measurement of Entropy

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversibility and Entropy

Changes in Entropy with Temperature

An Adiabatic Compression

Absolute Entropies

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

ΔS for Phase Changes

The Direction of Time

Reference

Problems

Free Energy: The Arbiter

Processes in Isolated Systems

Gibbs Free Energy, G

Gibbs Free Energy and Maximum Work

Some Processes in Terms of Gibbs Free Energy

Adsorption Processes

Evaporation Phenomena

Endothermic Chemical Processes

Exothermic Chemical Process

Standard Free Energy Changes

Reference

Problems

Chemical Equilibrium

Preamble

Variation of G with Gas Pressure

Chemical Potential, μ

Pressure and Chemical Potential for Ideal Gases

Chemical Potential for Real Gases

Activity

The Active Mass of Pure Liquids and Solids

Activity of Materials in Solution

Solvents

Solutes or Minor Components

A Summing Up: Activity as a Unifying Concept

Practical Aspects of Activity

Equilibrium and the Reaction Isotherm

Summary

References

Problems

Equilibrium Experiments and Their Interpretation

The Reaction Isochore Equation

Le Chatelier Up to Date

Applications of the Isochore Equation

Vaporization Processes

The Decomposition of the Compound Fe(OH)3

The High-Temperature Dissociation of Water Vapor

The Clapeyron Equation

Summary

References

Problems

Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemical Cells

Cell Energetics

Standard Electrode Potentials

Variation of Cell emf with Activity

Ionic Activities

Analysis of e.m.f. Data to Find E0

Variation of emf with Temperature

References

Problems

Free Energy and Industrial Processes

Free Energies as a Function of Temperature

The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation

The Integrated Form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation

Tabulated Forms of Free Energy

The Synthesis of Ethanol

Equilibrium Calculations

Use of Activity Coefficients

Ellingham Diagrams

Corrosion Prevention

Electrolysis of Alumina

Thermal Reduction of Magnesia

Titanium and the Kroll Process

Silicon Metal Production

Summary

References

Problems

Computational Thermochechemistry

Calculation of an Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Precipitation of Carbide and Nitride Phases from Dilute Solution in Alloy Steel

CVD Production of Ultrapure Silicon

Processing of Wastes from the Aluminum Electrolytic Furnace

Production of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon in an Arc (Oven) Furnace

Summary

References

Appendices

Answers

Suggested Further Reading

Index

About the Author

A. P. H. Peters is a senior lecturer in physical and analytical chemistry at Hogeschool Zuyd in Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
SCI065000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics