3rd Edition

Concise Chemical Thermodynamics

By A.P.H. Peters Copyright 2010
    236 Pages 47 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    236 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The first two editions of Concise Chemical Thermodynamics proved to be a very popular introduction to a subject many undergraduate students perceive to be difficult due to the underlying mathematics. With its concise explanations and clear examples, the text has for the past 40 years clarified for countless students one of the most complicated branches of science. Following in the tradition of its predecessors, this Third Edition continues to offer a practical, example-based exploration of a critical topic, maintaining academic rigor but eschewing complicated calculations.

    Updated to reflect new concerns in the 21st century, this edition now includes:

    • An extensive outlook on the world’s current energy consumption and the role of renewable energy in the future
    • An example of an exothermic reaction through a discussion of the Mond process for extracting and purifying nickel
    • The use of Mathcad® to calculate a plot of Gibbs energy for a reaction mixture versus the extent of reaction
    • An explanation of the Lambda sensor, which reduces vehicle emissions
    • The use of FactSage software to calculate and describe the production of silicon in an arc (oven) furnace

    This latest edition re-works problems that have proven to be the most difficult for students and adds several new ones to further amplify complex areas. The book also provides an updated list of suggested readings. Keeping pace with new technology and the shift in emphasis to green chemistry, this volume provides an up-to-date treatment of a foundational topic.

    The Realm of Thermodynamics
    Energy Bookkeeping
    Nature’s Driving Forces

    Setting the Scene: Basic Ideas
    System and Surroundings
    Functions of State
    Mechanical Work and Expanding Gases
    The Absolute Temperature Scale
    Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion
    Forms of Renewable Energy
    Solar Energy
    Wind Energy
    Hydroelectric Power
    Geothermal Energy
    Biomass Energy
    The First Law of Thermodynamics
    Statement of the First Law
    Reversible Expansion of an Ideal Gas
    Constant-Volume Processes
    Constant-Pressure Processes
    A New Function: Enthalpy
    Relationship between ΔH and ΔU
    Uses and Conventions of ΔH
    Enthalpy Change of Reaction
    Standard Enthalpies of Formation
    The Many Uses of Δf H0 Data
    Bomb Calorimeters
    Differential Scanning Calorimetry
    Concepts of Heat Capacity
    Combustion and Flame Temperatures
    Variation of Reaction Enthalpies with Temperature
    Bond Energies
    Average Bond Dissociation Energies
    Spontaneous Changes
    Everyday Processes
    Exothermicity: A Possible Criterion
    Spontaneous Exothermic Processes
    Spontaneous Processes Involving No Heat Change
    Endothermic Processes
    The Second Driving Force
    Measurement of Entropy
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Reversibility and Entropy
    Changes in Entropy with Temperature
    An Adiabatic Compression
    Absolute Entropies
    The Third Law of Thermodynamics
    ΔS for Phase Changes
    The Direction of Time
    Free Energy: The Arbiter
    Processes in Isolated Systems
    Gibbs Free Energy, G
    Gibbs Free Energy and Maximum Work
    Some Processes in Terms of Gibbs Free Energy
    Adsorption Processes
    Evaporation Phenomena
    Endothermic Chemical Processes
    Exothermic Chemical Process
    Standard Free Energy Changes
    Chemical Equilibrium
    Variation of G with Gas Pressure
    Chemical Potential, μ
    Pressure and Chemical Potential for Ideal Gases
    Chemical Potential for Real Gases
    The Active Mass of Pure Liquids and Solids
    Activity of Materials in Solution
    Solutes or Minor Components
    A Summing Up: Activity as a Unifying Concept
    Practical Aspects of Activity
    Equilibrium and the Reaction Isotherm
    Equilibrium Experiments and Their Interpretation
    The Reaction Isochore Equation
    Le Chatelier Up to Date
    Applications of the Isochore Equation
    Vaporization Processes
    The Decomposition of the Compound Fe(OH)3
    The High-Temperature Dissociation of Water Vapor
    The Clapeyron Equation
    Electrochemical Cells
    Electrochemical Cells
    Cell Energetics
    Standard Electrode Potentials
    Variation of Cell emf with Activity
    Ionic Activities
    Analysis of e.m.f. Data to Find E0
    Variation of emf with Temperature

    Free Energy and Industrial Processes
    Free Energies as a Function of Temperature
    The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
    The Integrated Form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
    Tabulated Forms of Free Energy

    The Synthesis of Ethanol
    Equilibrium Calculations
    Use of Activity Coefficients
    Ellingham Diagrams
    Corrosion Prevention
    Electrolysis of Alumina
    Thermal Reduction of Magnesia
    Titanium and the Kroll Process
    Silicon Metal Production

    Computational Thermochechemistry
    Calculation of an Adiabatic Flame Temperature
    Precipitation of Carbide and Nitride Phases from Dilute Solution in Alloy Steel
    CVD Production of Ultrapure Silicon
    Processing of Wastes from the Aluminum Electrolytic Furnace
    Production of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon in an Arc (Oven) Furnace
    Suggested Further Reading


    A. P. H. Peters is a senior lecturer in physical and analytical chemistry at Hogeschool Zuyd in Heerlen, The Netherlands.