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3rd Edition

Concise Chemical Thermodynamics





ISBN 9781439813324
Published July 2, 2010 by CRC Press
236 Pages 47 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The first two editions of Concise Chemical Thermodynamics proved to be a very popular introduction to a subject many undergraduate students perceive to be difficult due to the underlying mathematics. With its concise explanations and clear examples, the text has for the past 40 years clarified for countless students one of the most complicated branches of science. Following in the tradition of its predecessors, this Third Edition continues to offer a practical, example-based exploration of a critical topic, maintaining academic rigor but eschewing complicated calculations.

Updated to reflect new concerns in the 21st century, this edition now includes:

  • An extensive outlook on the world’s current energy consumption and the role of renewable energy in the future
  • An example of an exothermic reaction through a discussion of the Mond process for extracting and purifying nickel
  • The use of Mathcad® to calculate a plot of Gibbs energy for a reaction mixture versus the extent of reaction
  • An explanation of the Lambda sensor, which reduces vehicle emissions
  • The use of FactSage software to calculate and describe the production of silicon in an arc (oven) furnace

This latest edition re-works problems that have proven to be the most difficult for students and adds several new ones to further amplify complex areas. The book also provides an updated list of suggested readings. Keeping pace with new technology and the shift in emphasis to green chemistry, this volume provides an up-to-date treatment of a foundational topic.

Table of Contents

Energy
The Realm of Thermodynamics
Energy Bookkeeping
Nature’s Driving Forces

Setting the Scene: Basic Ideas
System and Surroundings
Functions of State
Mechanical Work and Expanding Gases
The Absolute Temperature Scale
Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion
Forms of Renewable Energy
Solar Energy
Wind Energy
Hydroelectric Power
Geothermal Energy
Biomass Energy
References
Problems
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Statement of the First Law
Reversible Expansion of an Ideal Gas
Constant-Volume Processes
Constant-Pressure Processes
A New Function: Enthalpy
Relationship between ΔH and ΔU
Uses and Conventions of ΔH
Enthalpy Change of Reaction
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
The Many Uses of Δf H0 Data
References
Problems
Thermochemistry
Calorimetry
Bomb Calorimeters
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Concepts of Heat Capacity
Combustion and Flame Temperatures
Variation of Reaction Enthalpies with Temperature
Bond Energies
Average Bond Dissociation Energies
References
Problems
Spontaneous Changes
Everyday Processes
Exothermicity: A Possible Criterion
Spontaneous Exothermic Processes
Spontaneous Processes Involving No Heat Change
Endothermic Processes
The Second Driving Force
Problems
Entropy
Measurement of Entropy
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Reversibility and Entropy
Changes in Entropy with Temperature
An Adiabatic Compression
Absolute Entropies
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
ΔS for Phase Changes
The Direction of Time
Reference
Problems
Free Energy: The Arbiter
Processes in Isolated Systems
Gibbs Free Energy, G
Gibbs Free Energy and Maximum Work
Some Processes in Terms of Gibbs Free Energy
Adsorption Processes
Evaporation Phenomena
Endothermic Chemical Processes
Exothermic Chemical Process
Standard Free Energy Changes
Reference
Problems
Chemical Equilibrium
Preamble
Variation of G with Gas Pressure
Chemical Potential, μ
Pressure and Chemical Potential for Ideal Gases
Chemical Potential for Real Gases
Activity
The Active Mass of Pure Liquids and Solids
Activity of Materials in Solution
Solvents
Solutes or Minor Components
A Summing Up: Activity as a Unifying Concept
Practical Aspects of Activity
Equilibrium and the Reaction Isotherm
Summary
References
Problems
Equilibrium Experiments and Their Interpretation
The Reaction Isochore Equation
Le Chatelier Up to Date
Applications of the Isochore Equation
Vaporization Processes
The Decomposition of the Compound Fe(OH)3
The High-Temperature Dissociation of Water Vapor
The Clapeyron Equation
Summary
References
Problems
Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemical Cells
Cell Energetics
Standard Electrode Potentials
Variation of Cell emf with Activity
Ionic Activities
Analysis of e.m.f. Data to Find E0
Variation of emf with Temperature
References
Problems

Free Energy and Industrial Processes
Free Energies as a Function of Temperature
The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
The Integrated Form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
Tabulated Forms of Free Energy

The Synthesis of Ethanol
Equilibrium Calculations
Use of Activity Coefficients
Ellingham Diagrams
Corrosion Prevention
Electrolysis of Alumina
Thermal Reduction of Magnesia
Titanium and the Kroll Process
Silicon Metal Production

Summary
References
Problems
Computational Thermochechemistry
Calculation of an Adiabatic Flame Temperature
Precipitation of Carbide and Nitride Phases from Dilute Solution in Alloy Steel
CVD Production of Ultrapure Silicon
Processing of Wastes from the Aluminum Electrolytic Furnace
Production of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon in an Arc (Oven) Furnace
Summary
References
Appendices
Answers
Suggested Further Reading
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

A. P. H. Peters is a senior lecturer in physical and analytical chemistry at Hogeschool Zuyd in Heerlen, The Netherlands.

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