Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology

1st Edition

By Ashok Pandey

CRC Press

735 pages

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Hardback: 9781560229803
pub: 2004-06-04
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Description

An easy-to-use reference source on the applications and management of biotechnology!

The Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology is a unique resource for state-of-the-art research findings on biotechnological innovations and their potential for commercial exploitation. This comprehensive reference gives you immediate access to information on the application of bioresource technology as it relates to industrial, food, and environmental biotechnology. Practitioners, academics, and researchers representing a wide range of disciplines examine vital issues including the production and applications of microbial enzymes and organic acids, fermentation, wastewater treatment, and air pollution.

The Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology will bring you up-to-date on advances in the applications and management of bioprocesses, biomass, bioenergy, biological waste treatment, biotransformations, and conversion and production technologies. This vital information has been organized in an easy-to-use format that lets you become familiar with highlights of the most relevant topics and includes photographs, figures, and tables. Issues addressed in the book include:

  • agro-industrial residues for bioprocesses
  • solid-state fermentation for bioconversion of biomass
  • alcoholic fermentation
  • food grade yeast production
  • treatment of industrial effluents
  • anaerobic animal waste environments
  • reactors for wastewater treatment
  • and much more!
The Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology is a vital resource for practitioners, researchers, and academics working in the areas of biotechnology, chemical engineering, resource, energy and conservation sciences, process technology, applied microbiology, and farm and industrial waste technology.

Table of Contents

  • Figures
  • Tables
  • About the Editor
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Part I: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Advances in Biological Wastewater Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Conventional Biological Wastewater Treatment
  • Advanced Wastewater Treatment
  • Nutrients in Wastewater
  • Conclusions
  • Anaerobic Animal-Waste Environments: Salmonella Species Ecology
  • Introduction
  • Salmonella Physiology in the Anaerobic Waste Environment
  • Salmonella Pathogenicity in the Waste Environment
  • Conclusions
  • Biobeneficiation
  • Introduction
  • Possible Mechanisms
  • The Practice
  • Conclusions
  • Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Introduction
  • Biodegradation of PAHs by Aerobic Bacteria
  • Biodegradation of PAHs by Anaerobic Bacteria
  • Biodegradation of PAHs by Fungi
  • Biodegradation of PAHs by Algae
  • Conclusions
  • Biofiltration
  • Introduction
  • History of Biofiltration
  • Process Description
  • Mechanism of Biofiltration
  • Microbial Aspects of Biofiltration
  • Biofilter Media
  • Characteristics of an “Ideal” Biofilter
  • Performance Parameters
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofiltration
  • Commercial Application of Biofilters
  • Conclusions
  • Biological Control of Air Pollution
  • Introduction
  • Process Description
  • Process Modeling and Design
  • Operation and Maintenance
  • Conclusions
  • Biomethanogenesis
  • Introduction
  • Biomethanation Plants and Digestors
  • Substrates for Biogas Production
  • Microbiology of Biomethanation
  • Biochemistry of Methane Synthesis
  • Conclusions
  • Bioremediation
  • Introduction
  • Bioremediation Methods
  • Applications of Bioremediation
  • Features of Bioremediation
  • Bioremediation—Success Stories
  • Conclusions
  • Methods for the Biological Treatment of Wastewater
  • Biological Reactors
  • Principles of Biological Treatment
  • Reaction Kinetics
  • Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • Membrane Bioreactor
  • Introduction
  • Membrane Bioreactor Systems
  • Conclusions
  • Rotating Biological Contactors
  • Introduction
  • Process Modeling
  • Process Design
  • Nitrification and Denitrification
  • Effect of Temperature
  • Conclusions
  • Trickling Filter
  • Introduction
  • Recirculation
  • Process Microbiology
  • Process Modeling and Design
  • Conclusions
  • Waste Stabilization Ponds
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Pond Systems
  • Conclusions
  • Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
  • Introduction
  • Biofouling
  • Microorganisms Associated with Corrosion
  • Mechanism of Microbial Corrosion
  • Control and Monitoring of Microbial Corrosion
  • Conclusions
  • Treatment of Industrial Effluents
  • Distillery Effluent
  • Introduction
  • Problems associated with Distillery Effluent
  • Treatment Technologies
  • Bioremediation of Distillery Effluent
  • Recycling Treated Distillery Effluent
  • Conclusions
  • Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent
  • Introduction
  • Procedure of Pulping
  • Bleaching
  • Characteristics of Effluent
  • Problems Related to the Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Environmental Impact of the Pulp and Paper Mill
  • Effluent Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Mill
  • Conclusions
  • Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
  • Introduction
  • Chemical Removal Processes
  • Biological Removal Processes
  • Conclusions
  • Tannery Effluent
  • Introduction
  • Leather Industry—World Scenario
  • Tanning Processes
  • Existing Pollution Problems
  • Impacts of Tannery Effluent
  • Pollution Prevention Opportunities
  • Conclusions
  • Textile and Dye Effluent
  • Introduction
  • Physicochemical Processes
  • Biological Treatment Processes
  • Conclusions
  • Part II: Food Biotechnology
  • Biopolymer Application
  • Introduction
  • Starch
  • Cellulose
  • Chitin and Chitosan
  • Other Important Polymers
  • Conclusions
  • Biotransformations of Citrus Flavanone Glycosides
  • Introduction
  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Flavanone Glycosides
  • Hydrolysis of the Citrus Flavanone Glycosides
  • Hydrogenation in Basic Medium to Produce Dihydrochalcone Sweeteners
  • Enzymatic Glycosylation and Esterification to Synthesize New Derivatives
  • Fermented Milk Products
  • Introduction
  • Yogurt
  • Dahi or Dadhi
  • Leben and Other Related Products
  • Lactic Beverages
  • New Developments in Fermented Milk Products
  • Functional Dairy Foods
  • Fermented Vegetables
  • Introduction
  • Lactic Acid-Fermented Vegetables
  • Nutritional Value of Lactic Acid-Fermented Vegetables
  • Some Recipes
  • Food Additive Production by Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Food Additives of Fermentation Origin
  • Conclusions
  • Food-Grade Yeast Production
  • Introduction
  • Yeasts
  • Commercial Food-Grade Yeasts
  • Raw Materials in Food-Grade Yeast Production
  • Stages of Industrial Food-Grade Yeast Production
  • Conclusions
  • Kefir Yeast Technology
  • Introduction
  • Traditional Production of Kefir Grains
  • Morphology of Kefir Grains
  • Composition of Kefir Grains and Kefirlike Cultures
  • Fermentation and Chemical Composition of the Fermented Product
  • Parameters Affecting the Fermentation
  • Kefir Production
  • Preservation of Kefir Grains
  • Kefir Grains and Kefir As Probiotics
  • Conclusions
  • Molecular Methods for Microbial Detection and Characterization for Food Safety
  • Introduction
  • Detection
  • Characterization
  • Conclusions
  • Mushroom Production
  • Introduction
  • The Mushroom Production Industry: Past and Present
  • Compost-Based Mushroom Production
  • Lignocellulose-Based Mushroom Production
  • Environmental Aspects
  • Conclusions
  • Nutraceutical Production and Use
  • Introduction
  • Mineral Fortification of Foods
  • Nutraceuticals from Plant Sources
  • Fish, Marine, and Dairy Products
  • Herbal Sources
  • Required Characteristics for Nutraceuticals
  • Consumer Concerns and the Future
  • Prebiotics and Probiotics
  • Introduction
  • Importance of Probiotics
  • Probiotic Organisms
  • Desirable Characteristics
  • Benefits of Probiotic Consumption
  • Sources of Prebiotics
  • Model Systems
  • Conclusions
  • Single-Cell Protein
  • Introduction
  • Need for Microbial Protein Production
  • Sources
  • Substrates
  • Nutritional Aspects of SCP
  • Limitations
  • Factors Affecting SCP Production
  • Commercial Production of SCP
  • Alternative Sources of SCP Production
  • Optimum SCP Production Parameters
  • Toxicity
  • Uses of SCP
  • Socioeconomic Problems and Cost Effectiveness
  • Conclusions
  • Vitamin Production by Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Microbial Production of Vitamins
  • Conclusions
  • Xanthan Gum Production
  • Introduction
  • General Properties
  • Xanthan
  • Gellan
  • Dextran
  • Scleroglucan
  • Biosynthetic Mechanisms and Production Kinetics
  • Fermentation
  • Product Recovery
  • Part III: Industrial Biotechnology
  • Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Bacterial Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Ethanol by Fermentation
  • Factors Affecting Ethanol Fermentation
  • Kinetics of Ethanol Fermentation
  • Process Improvement
  • Ethanol from Renewable Resources
  • Ethanol As an Automobile Fuel
  • Conclusions
  • Fruit-Based Alcoholic Beverages
  • Quality Factors and Composition of Wines
  • Technology of Fruit Wine Preparation
  • Spoilage of Wine
  • Fruit Brandy: The Technology of Production
  • Conclusions
  • Fuel Ethanol from Renewable Biomass Resources
  • Feedstocks—Introduction
  • Renewable Biomass Materials Used for Ethanol Production
  • Feedstocks—Conclusions
  • Process Strategies—Introduction
  • Processes for Ethanol Production from Sugar Materials
  • Processes for Ethanol Production from Starch and Lignocellulosic Materials
  • Bioreactors
  • Process Strategies—Conclusions
  • Grape-Based Alcoholic Beverages
  • Introduction
  • Table Wines
  • Sparkling Wines
  • Fortified Wines
  • Brandy
  • Wine Use
  • Malted Barley, Scotch Whiskey, and Beer
  • Introduction
  • Malt Production
  • The Malting Process
  • Malt Spirit and Grain Spirit Production
  • Beer Production
  • Conclusions
  • Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeasts for Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Need for Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeasts in the Ethanol Industry
  • Effect of Temperature on the Growth and Fermentation of Yeasts
  • Media Supplementation for Enhanced Osmotolerance and Thermotolerance
  • Mechanism of Osmotolerance and Thermotolerance
  • Fermentation Abilities of Isolated Osmotolerant and Thermotolerant Yeasts
  • Approaches for Obtaining Novel Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeast Strains with Good Ethanol Yields
  • Conclusions
  • Alkaloids, Aflatoxins, and Other Secondary Metabolites: Production Techniques
  • Introduction
  • Alkaloids
  • Aflatoxins
  • Other Secondary Metabolites
  • Conclusions
  • Amino Acid Production
  • Introduction
  • Production Strains
  • Commercial Need for and Application of Amino Acids
  • Amino Acid Secretion—Physiology and Metabolic Concept
  • Amino Acid Secretion—Mechanisms and Concepts
  • Other Amino Acids
  • Conclusions
  • Antibiotic Production
  • Introduction
  • Secondary Metabolism
  • Regulation
  • Production
  • Genetic Improvement
  • Conclusions
  • Aroma Compound Production
  • Introduction
  • Production of Aroma Compounds
  • Aroma Compound Biosynthesis Mechanisms
  • Applications of Aroma Compounds
  • Conclusions
  • Bioconversion of Agroindustrial Residues for Bioprocesses
  • Cassava Industry Residues
  • Introduction
  • Microbial Strains Cultivated on Cassava Bagasse
  • Bioprocesses Involving Cassava Bagasse
  • Conclusions
  • Coffee Industry Residues
  • Introduction
  • Industrial Processing of Coffee Cherries
  • Physicochemical Composition of Coffee Pulp and Husk
  • Applications of Coffee Pulp and Husk
  • Conclusions
  • Palm Oil Industry Residues
  • Introduction
  • Residues from the Palm Oil Industry
  • Valuable Products from Palm Oil Waters
  • Conclusions
  • Seafood Industry Residues
  • Introduction
  • Residues from the Seafood Industry
  • Valuable Products from Seafood-Processing Residues
  • Conclusions
  • Biodiesel Production and Application
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Raw Materials
  • Methods of Manufacture and Factors Affecting Production
  • Properties of Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel
  • Potential Technology Development: Biodiesel As a Solvent Extractant for In Situ Biodiesohol Production
  • Biofertilizers: Production, Application, and Quality Control
  • Introduction
  • Biomass Production
  • Formulations
  • Application Methods
  • Inoculant Quality Control
  • Conclusions
  • Biopulping
  • Introduction
  • Lignin-Degrading Enzymes
  • Use of Biopulping for the Production of Chemical Pulp
  • Use of Biopulping for the Production of Mechanical Pulp
  • Conclusions
  • Biosurfactant Production and Application
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Role and Production Mechanisms
  • Factors Affecting Biosurfactant Production
  • Applications of Biosurfactants
  • Conclusions
  • Microbial Enzymes: Production and Applications
  • L-Glutaminase
  • Introduction
  • Sources of L-Glutaminase
  • Production of L-Glutaminase
  • Structure of L-Glutaminase
  • Properties
  • Glutaminase Gene
  • Applications of L-Glutaminase
  • Conclusions
  • Inulinases
  • Introduction
  • Inulinases: Action and Types
  • Microbial Production of Inulinases
  • Purification of Inulinases
  • Applications of Inulinases
  • Laccase
  • Introduction
  • Activity on Lignocellulose Constituents
  • Conclusions
  • Lignin Peroxidase
  • Introduction
  • LIP Properties and Production
  • Main Applications of Ligninolytic Enzymes
  • Lipase
  • Introduction
  • Kinetic Model of Lipolysis
  • Reaction Mechanism
  • Production of Microbial Lipases
  • Industrial Applications of Lipases
  • Conclusions
  • Pectinases
  • Introduction
  • Substrates of Pectinases
  • Classification of Pectinases
  • Action of Pectinases
  • Production of Pectinases
  • Applications of Pectinases
  • Conclusions
  • Phytases
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Microbial Phytases
  • Production of Microbial Phytases
  • Molecular Biology and Gene Expression
  • Purification and Properties
  • Conclusions
  • Proteases
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Proteases
  • Production of Proteases
  • Application of Proteases
  • Conclusions
  • Therapeutic Enzymes
  • Introduction
  • Specific Therapeutic Enzymes
  • Conclusions
  • Xylanases: Production
  • Introduction
  • Xylanase Production
  • Conclusions
  • Xylanases: Properties and Applications
  • Introduction
  • Xylan Structure
  • Xylanase Properties
  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Xylan
  • Applications of Xylanases in the Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Conclusions
  • Modified Oligonucleotides
  • Introduction
  • Conjugates
  • Oligonucleotide Analogs
  • DNA Chips
  • Conclusions
  • Organic Acids: Production and Application
  • Citric Acid
  • Introduction
  • Raw Materials Used for Citric Acid Production
  • Microorganisms Used for Citric Acid Production
  • Citric Acid Production Techniques
  • Factors Affecting Citric Acid Production
  • Product Recovery
  • Gallic Acid
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Tannins
  • Production of Gallic Acid
  • Properties and Applications of Gallic Acid
  • Conclusions
  • Lactic Acid
  • Introduction
  • Production Technologies
  • Uses and Applications
  • Conclusions
  • Pigment Production
  • Introduction
  • Plant Pigments
  • Microbial Pigments
  • Legislation Involved in the Use of Microbial Pigments
  • Present Status of Microbial Pigments
  • Conclusions
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production from Renewable Resources
  • Introduction
  • Plastic Degradation
  • Biocompatibility
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)
  • Conclusions
  • Pretreatment of Lingocellulosic Substrates
  • Introduction
  • Physical Pretreatment
  • Chemical Pretreatment
  • Biological Pretreatment
  • Conclusions
  • Recycling Agriculture By-Products and Residues for Animal Feeding
  • Introduction
  • Crop Residues
  • By-Products
  • Conclusions
  • Solid-State Fermentation for Bioconversion of Biomass
  • Design of Bioreactors for Solid-State Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Design Considerations
  • Reactor Types
  • Conclusions
  • Engineering Aspects of Solid-State Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Bioreactors and Modeling
  • Standard Instrumentation
  • Advanced Instrumentation
  • Process Control
  • Conclusions
  • General Aspects of Solid-State Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of SSF
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of SSF
  • Factors That Influence SSF
  • Substrates for SSF
  • Conclusions
  • Modeling in Solid-State Fermentation
  • Introduction
  • Bioreactor Models
  • Models of Particle-Scale Phenomena
  • Conclusions
  • Xylitol Production from Hemicellulosic Substrates
  • Introduction
  • Production of Xylitol
  • Xylitol Production Pathways
  • Optimizing Xylitol Production
  • Conclusions
  • Index
  • Reference Notes Included

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
NAT010000
NATURE / Ecology