Concise Handbook of Experimental Methods for the Behavioral and Biological Sciences: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Concise Handbook of Experimental Methods for the Behavioral and Biological Sciences

1st Edition

By Jay E. Gould

CRC Press

448 pages | 40 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9780849311048
pub: 2001-12-20
$170.00
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Description

Although there are many books written on the principles and methods of experimentation, few are written in a succinct, comprehensive outline format. The Concise Handbook of Experimental Methods for the Behavioral and Biological Sciences is based on a popular course taught by the author for more than two decades to assist advanced undergraduate and graduate students in understanding and applying the principles and methods of experimentation.

The handbook is organized into three parts. Part One covers the philosophy of science, forms of scientific research, steps of the scientific method, variables in research designs, and the initial and final phases of research. Part Two discusses research ethics and experimental control. Part Three surveys experimental design, sampling and generalization, and hypothesis testing and statistical significance.

The handbook's illustrations, extensive appendices, and detailed index allow you to acquire the techniques necessary to conduct, interpret, and evaluate research and then clearly communicate those findings. The Concise Handbook of Experimental Methods for the Behavioral and Biological Sciences eliminates the need for wading through unnecessary details to find what you need, making it a handy resource for reference and review.

Reviews

"This is an interesting book on the 'big picture' of experiments, written by a psychology professor from the University of West Florida. . . This would be a good book to include in a list of additional reading for a graduate or undergraduate statistical consulting course. It would help students gain an appreciation of how the entire process of experimentation is viewed by practitioners, and to focus on the role of statisticians in date collection and analysis."

-Christine M. Anderson-Cook, Virginia Tech

"…beautifully written… The purpose is to provide a vast amount of experimental research knowledge to the reader in a concise, easy-to-read, easy-to-use, yet thorough format. Moreover, the outline format is a tremendously ingenious way of presenting this material. The author undoubtedly has achieved his objectives. …This book was a pleasure to read and review and will be of value - to me in particular. I see this book being the core text for research methodology courses as well as a solid text for researchers in the field. I recommend this book without reservation."

- Nicholas Greco IV, M.S., Abbott Laboratories, in Divine, Inc. (formerly Doody Publishing)

Table of Contents

Part One - Science: The Philosophy and Components

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE

Philosophy and its Relationship to the Sciences

Approaches to Knowledge

Goals of Science

Assumptions of Science

Requirements of Scientific Observation

FORMS OF SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION AND RESEARCH

Naturalistic Observation used in Descriptive Research

Techniques of Naturalistic Observation used in Descriptive research

Experimental Observation used in Explanatory / Experimental Research

STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Introduction

Primary Steps

Secondary Steps

Problem Formulation (Step One of the Scientific Method)

Hypothesis Formulation (Step Two of the Scientific Method)

VARIABLES IN RESEARCH DESIGNS

Design Construction (Step Three of the Scientific Method)

Variables

Principal Variables of Experiments

Accuracy and Consistency of Variables

Abstract Variables and Concrete Definitions

Circular Reasoning

INITIAL AND FINAL PHASES OF RESEARCH

Literature Surveys

Research Proposal

Pilot Study

Serendipity

Research Report

Part Two - Research Ethics and Experimental Control

ETHICS OF RESEARCH

Non-Participant Ethical Issues

Human Participant Ethical Issues

Animal Participant Ethical Issues

CONTROL IN EXPERIMENTS: BASIC PRINCIPALS AND SOME TECHNIQUES

Two Meanings of Experimental Control

Forms of Extraneous Variables

Concept of Variance and Good Experimental Designs

General Sources of Variance

Types of Variance

Minimax Principals of Variance

Maximizing the Primary Variance

Making Equivalent the Secondary Variance: Some Techniques

CONTROL IN EXPERIMENTS: ADDITIONAL TECHNIQUES AND PRINCIPLES

Making Equivalent the Secondary Variance: More Techniques

Minimizing the Error Variance

Part Three - Design and Analysis of Experiments

DESIGNS FOR EXPERIMENTS: INTRODUCTION AND WITHIN-PARTICIPANTS

General Concepts and Principles

Pre-Experimental Design

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Categories of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Within-Participants / Groups (Repeated-Measures) Designs

DESIGNS FOR EXPERIMENTS: BETWEEN-PARTICIPANTS AND MULTIPLE TREATMENTS

Between-Participants, Independent (Randomized), Two-Group Designs

Between-Participants, Related/Matched/Correlated, Two-Group Designs

Multiple Treatment Designs

SAMPLING AND GENERALIZATION

Definitions

Fundamental Decisions When Selecting a Sample of Research Participants

Statistics and Parameters

Sampling Reliability

Sampling Validity

Generalization/ External Validity Concerns

Sampling Techniques

HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Types of Hypotheses

Testing the Null Hypothesis: Two Possible Outcomes

Proof versus Disproof: Certainty versus Support

Potential Errors During Statistical Decision Making

Researcher's Dilemma and the Chosen Level of Significance/Confidence

Power/Sensitivity of Statistical Tests and Designs

Sampling Distributions of Differences Between Pairs of Means

Statistical Significance versus Practical Significance

APPENDICES

INDEX

Note: Each chapter also includes a Review Summary and Review Questions

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MAT029000
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
MED090000
MEDICAL / Biostatistics
SCI043000
SCIENCE / Research & Methodology