408 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Concrete Face Rockfill Dams presents the state-of-the-art of dam design and construction. This consulting guide presents details and analyses of twenty-eight large CRFD dams worldwide, including the highest dam in the world. Twelve chapters provide specialist information on concepts, designs, technical specifications, construction details, and instrumentation. Both successes and failures that have led to substantial knowledge breakthroughs are discussed. Moreover, attention is paid to the plans for a CFRD dam over 300 meters high. Intended for dam engineers, this illustrated reference volume is also warmly recommended to other engineering professionals working on the design, construction, and operation of dams and related hydraulic structures.

    1. An Overall Introduction to Concrete Face Rockfill Dams-CFRD
    1.1 A panorama of CFRDs in the world
    1.2 Important events related to CFRD
    1.3 CFRD in seismic areas – a historical event
    1.4 High dams in a near future
    1.5 Thoughts on very high CFRDs

    2. Design criteria for CFRDs
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Rockfill embankment
    2.3 Water flow through rockfill and leakage
    2.4 Stability
    2.5 Toe slab or the plinth
    2.6 Concrete face slab
    2.7 Perimeter joint
    2.8 Parapet wall and camber
    2.9 Other impervious alternatives
    2.10 Construction
    2.11 Instrumentation
    2.12 An overall conclusion

    3. Typical cross sections
    3.1 International nomenclature
    3.2 Evolution of compacted CFRD
    3.3 Case histories
    Cethana (Australia, 1971)
    Alto Anchicayá (Colombia, 1974)
    Foz do Areia (Brazil, 1980)
    Aguamilpa (Mexico, 1993)
    Campos Novos (Brazil, 2006)
    Shuibuya (China, 2009)
    Tianshengqiao 1 (China, 1999)
    Mohale (Lesotho, Africa, 2006)
    Messochora (Greece, 1996)
    El Cajón (Mexico, 2007)
    Kárahnjúkar (Iceland, 2007)
    Bakún (Malaysia, 2008)
    Golillas (Colombia, 1978)
    Segredo (Brazil, 1992)
    Xingó (Brazil, 1994)
    Pichi Picún Leufú (Argentina, 1995)
    Itá (Brazil, 1999)
    Machadinho (Brazil, 2002)
    Antamina (Peru, 2002)
    Itapebi (Brazil, 2003)
    Quebra-Queixo (Brazil, 2003)
    Barra Grande (Brazil, 2005)
    Hengshan (China, 1992)
    Salvajina (Colombia, 1983)
    Puclaro (Chile, 2000)
    Santa Juana (Chile, 1995)
    Mazar (Ecuador, 2008)
    Merowe (Sudan, 2008)

    3.4 Conclusions

    4. The Mechanics of Rockfill
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Rockfill embankments evolution
    4.3 The compacted rockfill
    4.4 Rockfills geomechanic properties
    4.5 Shear strength
    4.6 Compressibility
    4.7 Collapse
    4.8 Creep
    4.9 Rockfills as construction materials
    Appendix 4.1 – Machadinho D

    5. Stability
    5.1 Static stability
    5.2 Safety factors for typical rockfills embankments
    5.3 Stability in seismic areas
    5.4 Dynamic analysis
    5.5 Seismic design selection
    5.6 Slope stability
    5.7 Permanent deformations

    6. Seepage through rockfills
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Theories on flow through rockfills
    6.3 Critical aspects for stability
    6.4 Some historical precedents
    6.5 Leakage measured in CFRDs
    6.6 Design of CFRDs for throughflow control
    6.7 The reinforced rockfill

    7. Foundation treatment
    7.1 Plinth foundation
    7.2 Plinth stability
    7.3 Foundation transitions
    7.4 Rockfill foundation
    7.5 Grouting

    8. Plinth, slab and joints
    8.1 Plinth
    8.2 Slab
    8.3 Reinforcement design
    8.4 Crest parapet wall and freebord
    8.5 Fissures, cracks and failures – Treatments
    8.6 Drainage near the plinth

    9. Instrumentation
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Monitoring parameters
    9.3 Monitorig and maintenance care
    9.4 Final considerations

    10. CFRDs Performance
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Settlements
    10.3 Correlations between settlements, dam height and valley shape
    10.4 Horizontal displacements
    10.5 Combined movements
    10.6 Face deflection
    10.7 Vertical compressibility Modulus (EV) and transversal modulus (ET)
    10.8 Tri-dimensional displacements
    10.9 Conclusions

    11. Numerical analysis and its applications
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Engineering properties of rockfill material
    11.3 Rockfill material constitutive models
    11.4 CFRDs numerical analyses methods
    11.5 Application of numerical analyses on CFRDs
    11.6 Closing remarks
    11.7 Numerical analyses applied to Brazilian CFRDs10 CFRDs Performance

    12. Construction features
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 General aspects
    12.3 Plinth construction
    12.4 Excavation
    12.5 Concrete construction
    12.6 River diversion
    12.7 Embankment construction
    12.8 Fill construction
    12.9 Slab construction
    12.10 Outputs



    Paulo Teixeira da Cruz, BS in Civil Engineering from Mackenzie University School of Engineering (1957); holds both a Masters from MIT and a PhD degree in Geotechnical engineering from University of São Paulo – where he has worked for over 40 years. His first work with dams was in the historical Três Marias Dam and in the past 50 years of his professional life he has worked on countless dams all over Brazil. Mr. Cruz was in the board of consultants for the Campos Novos Dam and since the 80’s he has been rendering his expertise as an independent consultant. He is the author of 100 Brazilian Dams – history cases, material, construction, and design (1996) in which the ever so evident Brazilian know-how in dams’ design and construction is consolidated. Nowadays, Mr. Cruz is the actual Vice-President of the CFRD International Society.

    Bayardo Materón, Civil Engineer graduate from Cauca University, Popayán, Colombia (1960), he holds a MSc degree in Civil Engineering from Purdue University, Indiana, USA (1965). He works as a consulting engineer in the field of rockfill dams and hydro power construction methods. Since the completion of Alto Anchicayá CFRD in 1974, he has been involved with many leading engineering organizations on design and construction of rockfill dams and hydro projects. Member of several boards of consultants for different projects under construction, Mr. Materón is the actual President of the CFRD International Society. He has participated in the design and construction of the world’s highest CFRDs such as Alto Anchicayá, Salvajina, Porce III, Ranchería (Colombia); Foz do Areia, Xingó, Segredo, Itá, Itapebi, Machadinho, Campos Novos, Barra Grande (Brazil); Aguamilpa, El Cajón, La Yesca, La Parota (Mexico); Antamina, Torata, Olmos (Peru); Caracoles, Punta Negra (Argentina); Messochora (Greece); Kannaviou (Cyprus); Bakún (Malaysia); Mohale (Lesotho, Africa); Tiangshenqiao 1 (China); Merowe (Sudan); Berg River, Braamhoek (South Africa); Santa Juana, Puclaro, Punilla, Ancoa, Carén (Chile); Kárahnjúkar (Iceland); and Siah Bishe (Iran).

    Manoel de Souza Freitas Jr., BS in Civil Engineering (1969), from São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Since 1970 has participated in several dams project designs and construction activities in water supply and hydroelectric power generation as a geotechnical engineer. Nowadays, he is an independent consultant for several construction companies and a consultant for the World Bank and Inter American Bank in hydro projects in Brazil. Mr. Freitas has participated in the Tianshengqiao 1 Project (1,200 MW, P. R. China) as a Chief Engineer and Manager, and has been working as an independent consultant for several large CFRDs such as Barra Grande, Campos Novos, and Mazar (Republic of Ecuador).