Concrete Under Severe Conditions, Two Volume Set  book cover
1st Edition

Concrete Under Severe Conditions, Two Volume Set

ISBN 9780415593168
Published May 28, 2010 by CRC Press
1796 Pages

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Book Description

Global Climatic Change (GCC) is changing the way we manage and maintain our concrete infrastructure. For the last 15 years CONSEC conferences have strived to bring experts on a common platform to discuss and disseminate international expertise with respect to performance of concrete under severe conditions. These conferences have closely followed the evolution of research in this area and have brought forward critical advances that are now been adopted worldwide. CONSEC’10 paid particular attention to new trends. Not only traditional themes, such as performance under severe environments and loading, concrete construction, codes and design, and maintenance and repairs, are included. Attention is also given to sustainability, high performance specialized materials, new NDT methods, and emerging fields such as structural health monitoring and sensing.

The contributions in Concrete Under Severe Conditions show a clear accent on developing new technologies to reverse the trend in our decaying concrete infrastructure in both developed and emerging economies. This requirement has to be balanced with our need for sustainability, ecological preservation and environmental protection through the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products. Concrete Under Severe Conditions demonstrates the need for a continued dialogue and active cooperation between both developed and emerging economies to fully understand and deal with extreme environmental and loading issues on concrete infrastructure, and will be of interest to academics, engineers and professionals involved in concrete and concrete infrastructure.

Table of Contents


Keynote lectures

Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context
J.-M. Torrenti & G. Nahas

Diagnosis of alkali-aggregate reaction—polarizing microscopy and SEM-EDS analysis
T. Katayama

Accelerated vs. natural corrosion experimental results for remaining life stage forecasting
A.A. Torres-Acosta

Honoree sessions (Invited Papers)

The impact of tropical urban environment on the durability of RC
in Iberoamerican countries
O.M. Trocónis de Rincón, M. Sánchez, V. Millano, R. Fernández, E. Anzola de Partidas,
I. Martínez, N. Rebolledo, M. Barboza, J.C. Montenegro, R. Vera, A.M. Carvajal,
R. Mejia de Gutiérrez, J. Maldonado, C. Guerrero, E. Saborio-Leiva, C. Villalobos-Gonzalez,
J.T. Pérez-Quiroz, A. Torres-Acosta, P. Castro-Borges, E.I. Moreno, T. Pérez-López,
F. Almeraya-Calderón, W. Martinez-Molina, M. Martínez-Madrid, M. Salta,
A.P. de Melo, G. Rodríguez, M. Pedrón & M. Derrégibus

Electrical resistance tomography approach for localizing reinforcing bars in concrete
K. Karhunen, A. Seppänen, A. Lehikoinen, P.J.M. Monteiro & J.P. Kaipio

Experimental simulation of surface cracking in concrete structures affected by AAR
G. Nery, P. Helene, D. Cusson & J.C. Margeson

Sodium sulfate weathering in the residential concrete foundation
N. Yoshida, Y. Matsunami, M. Nagayama & E. Sakai

A required condition of thaumasite formation in marine environments
T. Nozaki, S. Ogawa, H. Hirao, K. Kono & K. Yamada

Qualification of repair materials by mechanical and durability properties
C.C. Ferraro, A.J. Boyd & C.A. Ishee

Concrete durability and sustainability as influenced by resistance to fluid ingress and selection of cementitious materials
R.D. Hooton

Special NDT session

Nondestructive evaluation of horizontal cracks in RC slabs by impact elastic-wave methods
T. Kamada, S. Uchida, K. Nakayama, H. Mae & T. Tamakoshi

Stress evaluation in concrete members using ultrasonic propagation velocity
Y. Oshima, A. Okamura & H. Kawano

Evaluation of chloride ion content in concrete structures using near-infrared spectroscopic technique
T. Yamamoto, M. Kohri & T. Ueda

Improving performance prediction of corroding concrete bridges with field monitoring
D. Cusson, Z. Lounis & L. Daigle

Nondestructive quality evaluation of surface concrete with various curing conditions
I. Kurashige & M. Hironaga

Monitoring of macrocell corrosion rate in existing structures
S. Miyazato

Electrochemical behavior of steel bar in concrete under tidal environment
Y. Akira, M. Iwanami, T. Yamaji, Y. Shimazaki & M. Ishinaka

The use of electrical resistivity as a NDT for the specification of concrete durability
C. Andrade & R. d’Andrea

Several factors affecting the anodic polarization curve of steel bars embedded in mortar
H. Hamada, Y. Sagawa, T. Ikeda & R. Morikawa

Durability monitoring on RC structures using “Shirasu concrete” in marine environment
T. Yamaguchi, K. Takewaka & S. Mori

Detection of reinforcement corrosion with a new non-destructive test method using induction heating
K. Kobayashi & N. Banthia

Surface resistivity profiles on marine substructures to assess concrete permeability
F.J. Presuel-Moreno, A. Suarez, I. Lasa & M. Paredes

Performance under severe environment

Deterioration processes

Risk of stress corrosion cracking of prestressing steels in contact with galvanized components
J. Mietz, A. Burkert, J. Lehmann & G. Eich

Chloride ingress in pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beams and the effect of corrosion on their structural behaviour
B. Cousin & B. Martín-Pérez

Evaluation of the risk of cracking in thin concrete walls due to hydration heat
C. Zanotti, A. Meda, G. Plizzari & S. Cangiano

Frost scaling of blast-furnace slag mortar with sodium monofluorophosphate
K. Sisomphon, O. Copuroglu & A.L.A. Fraaij

Improving the frost resistance of short-fiber-mixed shotcrete by hollow microspheres
F. Taguchi, M. Takahashi, N. Kishi, Y. Kurihashi & H. Mikami

Strains and stresses in concrete due to saline and non-saline freeze-thaw loads
V. Penttala

Experimental investigations concerning combined delayed ettringite formation and alkali-aggregate reaction
R.-P. Martin, J.-C. Renaud & F. Toutlemonde

Analysis of AAR preventive methods: Petrographic analysis and accelerated bar method
C.F.C. Silva, E.C.B. Monteiro & A.D. Gusmão

A brief description of alkali-aggregate reaction occurrence and prevention in Brazil
L. Sanchez, S. Kuperman & P. Helene

The natural pozzolana ‘Rhenish trass’ and its effect on ASR in concrete
U. Müller, P. Bürgisser, F. Weise & B. Meng

Chemical changes and carbonation profiles of carbonated cement pastes at 80°C for different relative humidities
E. Drouet, S. Poyet, P. Le Bescop & J.M. Torrenti

Influences of carbonation on heavy metal diffusivity in cement hydrates
K. Kawai, T. Sato & Y. Miyamoto

Carbonation of mortar with mineral admixtures and relation with physical properties
J.L. Gallias, K. Dizayee & A. Bessa

Influence of type of deicing chemical and cement on salt scaling of concrete
T. Oyamada, S. Hanehara, T. Fujiwara & T. Takahashi

Deteriorate forms and defective events on concrete surface damaged by de-icing chemical attacks
Y. Takashina

Influence of casting direction on chloride-induced rebar corrosion
U. Angst, C.K. Larsen, Ø. Vennesland & B. Elsener

Co-effects of initial and exposure environments on chloride penetration
H. Yokota, W. Xue & W. Jin
The effect of the corrosive environments over high strength concrete
C. Magureanu, C. Negrutiu & B. Heghes

Influence of concrete cracking on the corrosion of steel reinforcement
V. Jiménez-Quero, P. Montes-García & T.W. Bremner

Influence of local steel corrosion on shear failure mechanism of RC linear members
K. Watanabe, J. Niwa & M. Tsunoda

Effect of corrosion on the tensile properties of steel bars in cracked HPC containing CNI
H.Z. Lopez-Calvo, T.W. Bremner, M.D.A. Thomas & P. Montes-García

Corrosion resistance of lightweight concrete made of ternary mixtures
E.P. Reyes-Díaz, J.G. Osuna-Alarcón, F. Almeraya-Calderón & C. Gaona-Tiburcio

Reinforced concrete beams deterioration in tropical marine environment: DURACON-Campeche
H.T. Pérez, M.R. Sosa, L.R. Dzib, J. Reyes, R. Camacho, O. Troconis-Rincón & A. Torres-Acosta

Remaining shear strength in reinforced concrete beams deteriorated by corrosion
B. Guevara, C. Juarez, G. Fajardo & P. Castro-Borges

Experimental evaluation of the structural behaviour of corroded prestressed concrete beams
Z. Rinaldi, S. Imperatore, C. Valente & L. Pardi

Deterioration due to combined cyclic actions and reinforcement corrosion of R.C. structures
L. Giordano, G. Mancini & F. Tondolo

Failure analysis of reinforced concrete due to pitting corrosion of reinforcing bar
B.S. Jang, B.H. Oh & S.Y. Jang

Corrosion initiation state of rebars in concrete subjected to chloride penetration
G.M. Sadiqul-Islam & T. Sugiyama

Corrosion propagation in RC structures—state of the art review and way forward
M.B. Otieno, H.D. Beushausen & M.G. Alexander

Quantification of water penetration into concrete through cracks to rebars by neutron radiography
M. Kanematsu, N. Tuchiya, T. Noguchi & I. Maruyama

Behaviour of a crack submitted to a fluid penetration
C. Rouby, A. Féraille-Fresnet & A. Ehrlacher

Use of entrained air concrete exposed to chlorides in non-freeze thaw environments: Effects on plastic concrete properties
J. Thesen & R. El-Hacha

Study of CEM I and low pH cement pastes leaching in multi-ionic underground water
A. Dauzères, P. Le Bescop, P. Sardini & C. Cau Dit Coumes

Diffusion and adsorption properties of lead in cement hydrates
K. Kawai, H. Kikuchi & T. Sato

Influence of specimen type with RILEM CDF and ASTM C 672 on scaling under same temperature
M. Takahashi & S. Miyazato

Heat deterioration on fracture properties of concrete
Y. Kitsutaka & K. Matsuzawa

Thermal behaviour of concrete with layer of fireproofing materials exposed to fire
K.S. Nguyen, C. Lanos & Y. Mélinge

Heat and moisture movement and explosive spalling in concrete under fire environment
T. Noguchi, M. Kanematsu, J.W. Ko & D.W. Ryu

Fire resistance of high performance RC column with nylon and polypropylene fiber
C.G. Han, M.C. Han, R.P. Ferron & D. Han

Spalling under fire of ultra-high performance fibre concrete: Effect of polymer fibers
L. Missemer, E. Ouedraogo, Y. Malécot, D. Rogat & C. Clergue

Properties of fibre reinforced concrete after various degrees of heatloading
L. Bodnárová, R. Hela & J. Válek

Meso-scale analysis of mortar deteriorated by acid
Y. Oiwa, Y. Sato & T. Miura

Study of concrete alteration in sewer systems by biogenic sulfuric acid
T. Chaussadent, F. Boinski, J. Herisson & E. van Hullebusch

Simplified resistance evaluation of cementitious materials to sulfuric acid
K. Kawai, H. Morita & Y. Matsui

Service life prediction

Performance-based approach for durability of concrete containing flash metakaolin as cement replacement
R. San Nicolas, M. Cyr & G. Escadeillas

Modelling of reinforcement corrosion—simulation and time dependence
J. Harnisch, J. Warkus & M. Raupach

Inclusion of GCC in analytical solutions of service life models for concrete
J.M. Mendoza-Rangel & P. Castro-Borges

The time to commencement of reinforcement corrosion in marine environments
R.E. Melchers

A probabilistic approach for modelling calcium leaching in concrete structures
T. de Larrard, F. Benboudjema, J.-B. Colliat, J.-M. Torrenti & F. Deleruyelle

Prediction method of concrete deterioration by electrochemical inspection
K. Toda, T. Nishido & K. Uji

Relationship between electric resistivity and diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in mortar
H. Minagawa, M. Hisada & A. Ehara


Durability of light-weight self compacting concrete with expanded clay aggregate
M. Hubertova & R. Hela

Freeze-thaw durability of Portland cement and silica fume concretes
A. Badr

The influence of intergrinding of cement and fly ash on concrete durability
B. Czarnecki, W. Johnston & W. Dobslaw

Surface layer study of concrete containing metakaolin
K. Kolář, P. Reiterman, T. Klečka, M. Dudíková & P. Huňka

Durability of high performance concrete in cold climate and exposure to deicing salts
B. Czarnecki & R.L. Day

Capillary absorption and concrete durability
L. Juárez, P. Cano-Barrita, C. Robles, P. Castro-Borges & A.A. Torres-Acosta

Field performance of structures and materials

Concrete behaviour in four different atmospheres in Michoacan, Mexico
W. Martínez Molina, E.M. Alonso Guzmán, F.A. Velasco Avalos, C. Lara Gómez, H.L. Chávez García, A.A. Torres-Acosta & X. Chávez Cárdenas

Validation and improvement of procedures for performance testing of anti-graffiti agents on concrete surfaces
K. Malaga & U. Mueller

New possibilities of cooling towers diagnostics and repairs for increasing a service life
J. Bydzovsky, A. Dufka & Z. Snirch

Field experience of UHPFRC durability in an air cooling tower
F. Toutlemonde, V. Bouteiller, A. Deman, G. Platret, A. Pavoine, B. Duchesne, L. Lauvin, M. Carcasses & M. Lion

Structural behavior of monitored harbors during several tide and temperature loading cycles
H. Yáñez-Godoy, F. Lanata & F. Schoefs

Durability of fly ash concrete in a concrete harbor structure
V. Årskog & O.E. Gjørv

Effect of corrosion on time-dependent reliability of steel sheet-pile seawalls in marine environment conditions
H. Yañez-Godoy, J. Boéro, G. Thillard & F. Schoefs

Durability of silica fume concrete in Aursundet Bridge
V. Årskog, O. Sengul & O.E. Gjørv

The French National Project CEOS.FR: Assessment of cracking risk for special concrete structures under THCM stresses
A. Sellier, C. La Borderie, J.M. Torrenti & J. Mazars

Experimental modeling of high thermal gradients in steam injection wells
R.F. Correia, E.M.R. Fairbairn, R.D. Toledo-Filho & C.R. Miranda

Monitoring of “Zarzuela Racecourse” structure by means of no-destructive techniques for durability assessment
A. Castillo, C. Andrade, I. Martínez, N. Rebolledo, L. Fernández Troyano, G. Ayuso, J. Cuervo, J. Junquera & C. Santana


Performance and application of specialized materials


Slag cements and frost resistance
V. Årskog & O.E. Gjørv


Effect of type of fine aggregate on the resistance of concrete to sulfuric acid attack
T. Ayano & T. Fujii

Development of lightweight aggregate concrete with high resistance to water and chloride-ion penetration
X.M. Liu, K.S. Chia & M.H. Zhang

Improved durability of concrete due to SAP
H.W. Reinhardt & A. Assmann

A study on NOx purification by porous concrete with several kinds of aggregates and void contents
T.S. Xiang, T. Nakazawa, F. Imai & K. Onoue


Textile reinforced mortar for shear strengthening of RC beams
T.H. Almusallam, Y.A. Al-Salloum, S.H. Alsayed & H.M. Elsanadedy


Impact safety of structural UHPC elements—combined numerical and experimental approach
M. Noeldgen, E. Fehling, W. Riedel & K. Thoma

Comparative performances on the resistances of HPC and RPC to penetration of water and Cl−
K.V. Harish, D.S. Sabitha, J.K. Dattatreya & M. Neelamegam

Development of low-shrinkage high-performance concrete with improved durability
D. Cusson & J. Margeson
Effect of autogenous shrinkage of UHSC on bending behavior of RC column
I. Maruyama & M. Teshigawara

Ultrasonic monitoring of shrinkage development of HPC under isothermal conditions
S. Staquet, C. Boulay, N. Robeyst & N. De Belie

Sulfuric acid resistance of belite-based cement concrete mixed with GGBFS
S. Yoshida, F. Taguchi, T. Nawa & H. Watanabe

Performance of self compacting concrete with different quantities of FA and limestone
M. Skazlić

Self-compacting concrete for in loco molding walls system for low cost housing
R. Alencar & P. Helene

Fundamental study on self-repairing concrete using a selective heating device
T. Nishiwaki, H. Mihashi & Y. Okuhara

Self-healing concrete
R. Vandine, C. West & M.R. Hansen

Validation of an accelerated carbonation model for limestone aggregate concrete
R. Solís-Carcaño & E.I. Moreno


Crack damage mitigation of shear-dominant RC beams patching—repaired with SHCCs
W.S. Park, H.D. Yun, S.W. Kim, S.Y. Nam, J.H. Cha & K. Rokugo

Limiting crack width in RC beams by the use of ultra high toughness cementitious composites
X.F. Zhang & S.L. Xu

Thermal properties of aramid-fiber reinforced cement composite
E. Vejmelková, P. Konvalinka & R. Černý

Supplementary materials

Combined use of Class F fly ash and lithium salt for the reduction of alkali-silica reactivity
N. Ghafoori & M.S. Islam

Sustainable binder for severe environment: Magnesium-based cementitious material
F. Qiao, Z. Ding & Z. Li

Utilisation of slag from steel industry as an aggregate in concrete
I. Netinger, D. Bjegović & M. Jelčić

Durability of RC structures using GGBS under the complex deterioration condition
J. Matsumoto, K. Takewaka, T. Yamaguchi & M. Umeki

Effect of silica fume and GGBS on shrinkage in the high performance concrete
F. Ghassemzadeh, M. Shekarchi, S. Sajedi, M. Khanzadeh & S. Sadati

Comparing chloride diffusion in nine months concrete specimens containing zeolite and silica fume pozzolans
F. Pargar, M. Shekarchizadeh & M. Valipour


Mechanical behavior of steel fiber reinforced refractory concretes 1
R.D. Toledo-Filho, V.G.O. Almeida, E.M.R. Fairbairn & L.F.L. Rosa

Effect of steel fiber on explosive spalling and permeability of high performance concrete after exposure to high temperature
G.F. Peng, X.J. Duan, X.C. Yang & T.Y. Hao

Wood fibres as reinforcement in a low environmental-impact cementitious material
M.G. Sierra-Beltran & E. Schlangen


High strength stainless steel 14301 for prestressed concrete structures protection
M.C. Alonso, M. Sánchez, E. Mazario, F.J. Recio, H. Mahmoud & R. Hingorani

Corrosion resistant steel reinforcement—laboratory and field testing
M. Serdar, D. Bjegovic & I. Stipanovic-Oslakovic

Stainless steel performance in chloride contaminated concrete
A. Ramírez-Rentería, G. Serrano-Gutiérrez & A. Torres-Acosta

Effect of the chromite precipitates on the corrosion performance of SSR
A. Bautista, F. Velasco, S. Guzmán & G. Blanco

Evaluation of galvanized steel under the action of chloride ions and/or carbonation
D. Linares & M. Sánchez

Maintenance and repair

Conditions assessment

Reliability of existing bridges under severe seismic and wind loading
A. Mandić, J. Radić & Z. Šavor

Diagnosis and rehabilitation of a Mexican Pier
A. del Valle-Moreno, A. Torres-Acosta, M. Martínez-Madrid, D. Vázquez, R. Hernández, M. Fabela, W. Molina-Martínez & E. Alonso-Guzmán

Experimental study on the long-term durability after repairing by desalination
H. Koga, H. Watanabe & Y. Takeuchi

Repassivation of steel rebars after an electrochemical chlorides removal treatment by simultaneous application of calcium nitrite
M. Sánchez & M.C. Alonso

The effect of chloride depletion on the corrosion state of steel in alkaline environment
T. Eichler, B. Isecke, G. Wilsch, A. Faulhaber & K. Weidauer

Analysis of sorted powder samples for the assessment of deteriorated concrete
R. Felicetti

Moisture transport within building materials
J. Skramlik & M. Novotny

RH measurements for assessing moisture conditions in concrete structures
F. Pruckner & O.E. Gjørv

Surface treatments

The effect of using surface penetrate materials (silane type) to control the scaling of wheel-guard concrete on highway bridges
H. Endoh & F. Taguchi

Effect of concrete surface hydrophobation against chloride penetration
G. Liu, O.E. Gjørv & V. Årskog

Effect of w/c on the behavior of hydrophobic concrete coatings in a tropical environment
O. Troconis-Rincón, J. Bravo, M. Sánchez, D. Contreras, M. Aboulhosn, C. Morales, V. Millano & Y. Hernández

Water repellent treatments—the importance of reaching a sufficient penetration depth
A. Johansson-Selander, J. Trägårdh, J. Silfwerbrand & M. Janz

Elimination of biological covering on concrete: Tests in situ of different techniques
M. Bouichou, E. Marie-Victoire, A. François, F. Bousta & G. Orial

Preventing chloride ingress in concrete with water repellent treatments
A. Johansson-Selander, J. Trägårdh, J. Silfwerbrand & M. Janz

Sensing and monitoring

A fundamental study on non-destructive measurement of chloride concentration in concrete by Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis
I. Ujike, S. Okazaki, Y. Yamada & H. Matsue

Wireless measurement of electrochemical potentials of steel reinforcement in concrete structures
K. Reichling & M. Raupach

Development of a remote monitoring strategy for building foundations affected by AAR
G. Nery, P. Helene, D. Cusson & J.C. Margeson

Application of electrochemical and novel techniques

Self-corrosion of steel in concrete by electrochemical measurements and X-ray tomography
J. Goebbels, M. Beck, B. Isecke, A. Burkert & R. Bäßler

Suppression of ASR due to electrochemical supply of lithium from DFRCC anode system
T. Ueda, T. Kameda, T. Maeda & A. Nanasawa

Application of bacteria in repairing the concrete cracks—A review
R. Narayanasamy, N. Villegas-Flores, F. Betancourt-Silva, J. Betancourt-Hernández & N. Balagurusamy

Corrosion mitigation

Inhibiting behavior of nitrites in corrosion of reinforcing steel in micropore solutions
P. Garcés, E. Zornoza, P. Saura & C. Andrade

Performance under severe loading


Behaviour of anchor rods under creep and fatigue tests
F. Delhomme & G. Debicki

Cyclic behavior of RC hollow bridge piers with corroded rebars
D. Cardone, G. Perrone & S. Sofia

An experimental study regarding static and dynamic behaviors of RC pier models
T. Okamoto, I. Hirasawa & Y. Ito

Reduced service life of concrete sleepers due to inadequate design
K. Giannakos


Mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of self-consolidating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures
H. Fares, S. Rémond, A. Noumowé & A. Cousture

Remediation of high temperature effects on self-consolidating concrete
N. Ghafoori & H. Diawara

Monitoring the explosive spalling process of HSC by means of acoustic emission method
M. Ozawa, H. Morimoto, S. Uchida & T. Kamada

Energetic consideration on strength decrease of concrete immersed in liquid
K. Onoue & H. Matsushita

On shotcrete mechanical behavior past severe heating
P. Bamonte, P.G. Gambarova, M. Marazzi & A. Rinaldi

On the influence of high temperature on the dynamic behaviour of HPFRCC
E. Cadoni, A. Caverzan & M. di Prisco


Seismic performance of RC columns with low-environmental impact friction-welding mechanical anchor bars
T. Matsuka, K. Sakai, M. Suzuki & N. Takahashi

Connection solutions for precast concrete columns subjected to earthquake loading
V. Popa, D. Cotofana & R. Pascu


Flexural response of RC beams subjected to impact loadings
K. Fujikake, S. Soeun & B. Li

Fiber Bragg grating arrays for impact damage monitoring in concrete
V. Sotoudeh, B. Moslehi, R.J. Black, L. Oblea, G. Chen & P.W. Randles

Experimental validation of an anisotropic delay damage model for impact on reinforced concrete structures
M. Chambart, F. Gatuingt, R. Desmorat & D. Guilbaud


Effect of the composition on concrete behaviour under high triaxial loading
X.H. Vu, Y. Malécot & L. Daudeville

Mechanical behaviour of very light concrete under severe triaxial loading
X.H. Vu, Y. Malécot, L. Daudeville & L. Zingg

Steel-concrete bond-slip influence on behavior of RC structures
L. Davenne, A. Boulkertous & A. Ibrahimbegovic

Dynamic model of a clamped elastic rectangular plate for spreadsheet application
J.M. Rambach


Life cycle assessment

Life-cycle maintenance strategies for deteriorating RC buildings
C.K. Chiu & T. Noguchi

Use of novel cements and concretes

Pervious concrete development in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA
M.R. Hansen & C. Phillips

S-TBL assessment for new concrete materials
Y. Kato & M. Henry

Recycled and supplementary materials

Performance of concretes prepared with blended cements made in Romania
D. Georgescu, A. Apostu & R. Pascu

Properties of HPC containing supplementary cementing materials
E. Vejmelková, P. Konvalinka, R. Černý, M. Ondráček & M. Sedlmajer

Required usage of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete
L.J. Malvar

Silicoaluminate cementitious materials, chemical durability and strength
O. Burciaga-Diaz, R. Arellano-Aguilar & J.I. Escalante-Garcia

Low carbon rice husk ash—A sustainable supplementary cementing material
K.V. Harish & P.R. Rangaraju

Control of thermal cracking in mass concrete with blast-furnace slag cement
S. Miyazawa, K. Koibuchi, A. Hiroshima, T. Ohtomo & T. Usui

Effect of slag on chloride transport and storage properties of HPC
Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, L. Fiala, H. Benešová, J. Mihulka & R. Černý

Monitoring the setting of concrete containing high cement substitution by supplementary cementitious materials
M.I.A. Khokhar, S. Staquet, E. Rozière & A. Loukili

Development of a prefoam-type air-entraining admixture for fly ash concrete
M. Kitatsuji, H. Aoyama, K. Saito & T. Endo

Hydration process of RHA and SF in cement paste by means of isothermal calorimetry
N. Van Tuan, G. Ye, K. van Breugel, Z. Guo & B.D. Dai

Effect of silica fume on carbonation of reinforced concrete structures in Persian Gulf region
S. Sadati, F. Ghassemzadeh & M. Shekarchi

What controls the durability of geopolymer binders and concretes?
J.L. Provis & J.S.J. van Deventer

LWA absorption and desorption: The influence on transport properties
J. Castro, J. Weiss, R. Henkensiefken, T. Nantung & D.P. Bentz

Performance of cement paste partially replaced by micronized sand
Y. Wang, G. Ye & K. van Breugel

Mechanical strength of hydraulic cement with addition of 2 & 4% of sugar cane bagasse
R. Romero, M.A. Baltazar, D. Nieves, E. Maldonado, G. Fox, H. Hernández, U.R. Bañuelos & R. Hernández

Reduction of CO2 emissions by using sugar cane bagasse ash as partial cement replacement
E.M.R. Fairbairn, T.P. Paula, R.D. Toledo-Filho, G.C. Cordeiro,B.B. Americano & M.M. Silvoso

Corrosion inhibitors for concrete from cactus extracts
A. Torres-Acosta

Effects of recycled coarse aggregate replacement levels on the mechanical properties of RAC
H.D. Yun

The use of crushed porcelain electrical isolators as fine aggregate in mortars
A.E.P.G.A. Jacintho, M.A. Campos, V.A. Paulon, G. Camarini,R.C.C. Lintz & L.A.G. Barbosa

An option for the use of fly ash on roller compacted concrete dams in Mexico
A. Garduno & M. Montero

Environmental issues

Environmental effects of a new concrete armor block
W. Nishigori, S. Takimoto, S. Noboru & K. Sakai

Codes and design

Structural design and performance

A methodology to enhance quality assurance for new concrete construction
D.F. Burke

Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD) of RC special moment frame structures
W.-C. Liao, S.C. Goel & S.-H. Chao

An energy spectrum method for seismic evaluation of structures
S.C. Goel, W.-C. Liao, M.R. Bayat & S. Leelataviwat

The new Romanian code for seismic evaluation of existing buildings
T. Postelnicu, E. Lozincă & R. Pascu

Short and long-term behaviors of longitudinally restrained reinforced concrete slabs
T. Yamamoto

Experimental and numerical analysis of prestressed HPC girders for bridges
P. Bujňáková & M. Moravčík

Specifying 100-year design life infrastructure projects—the pitfalls
R. Sri Ravindrarajah & B.A. Sabaa

Performance-based design

Determination of design wind speeds based on the simulation of historical tropical cyclones
L.E. Fernandez-Baqueiro, A.J. Fernandez-Ojeda & J.L. Varela-Rivera

Concrete construction and miscellaneous

Mexico City’s deep drainage—Durable concrete design, production and supply
R. Uribe & B. Martínez

Evaluation efficiency of a vessel-shaped concrete mixer using a visual technique
M. Yoshida, C. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe & H. Mizuguchi

New method for continuous monitoring of concrete E-modulus since casting
M. Azenha, F. Magalhães, R. Faria & A. Cunha

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