1752 Pages
    by Routledge

    It is difficult, if not totally impossible, to define what we call ‘Confucianism’ in terms of any of the disciplines we are used to in the West, and contemporary scholars tend to see it as a historical and yet living tradition containing elements of philosophy, religion, politics, morality, and education, continuing to hold significant power over the way and value of life in East Asia.

    To some extent Confucianism can be broadly said to have started with the teaching of Confucius (551–479BC) who focused on how to restore moral and political order through education and ritual performance, although he did not see himself as the founder of a new moment, nor did he elaborate a systematic religious or philosophical doctrine. Several centuries after his death, he was elevated to the position of the Perfect Sage and Ancient Teacher (zhisheng xianshi), and gradually became one of the focuses in state sacrifices. In this way Confucianism became part of the state religion or ideology addressing the needs of government, community, family, and the self, and dominated intellectual and social life for more than 2,000 years in China, and, to a lesser extent, in other parts of East Asia.

    While having substantially declined in political and social influence, Confucianism was revived by leading intellectuals (so-called Modern New Confucians) in the twentieth century to deal with perennial problems facing modern people and society. It is against this background that Confucian Studies has become an increasingly important subject taught in universities and colleges in North America, Europe, East Asia, and Australia. With more and more universities and colleges offering courses on or relating to Confucian philosophy, ethics, religion, and politics, this new collection from Routledge answers the urgent need for a source book in contemporary Confucian Studies. Volume I (‘Reassessing Confucian Traditions’) covers Confucianism in History and the focus of Volume II is on ‘Reinterpreting Confucian Ideas’. Volume III is titled ‘Reconstructing Confucian Ethics’, while the final volume in the collection brings the best scholarship on ‘Reappraising Confucian Ideals’.

    Volume I: Reassessing Confucian Traditions

    Part 1: Traditions of Transmission

    1. John N. Williams, ‘Confucius, Mencius, and the Notion of True Succession’, Philosophy East and West, 1988, 38, 2, 157–71.

    2. Jeffrey K. Riegel, ‘Poetry and the Legend of Confucius’s Exile’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1986, 106, 1, 13–22.

    3. John Kieschnick, ‘Analects 12.1 and the Commentarial Tradition’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1992, 112, 4, 567–76.

    4. Julia Ching, ‘Truth and Ideology: The Confucian Way (Tao) and its Transmission (Tao-T’ung)’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 1974, 35, 3, 371–88.

    5. A. S. Cua, ‘The Idea of Confucian Tradition’, Review of Metaphysics, 1992, 45, 4, 803–40.

    6. Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, ‘A New Direction in Confucian Scholarship: Approaches to Examining the Differences between Neo-Confucianism and Tao-hsüeh’, Philosophy East and West, 1992, 42, 3, 455–74.

    7. Thomas A. Wilson, ‘Genealogy and History in Neo-Confucian Sectarian Uses of the Confucian Past’, Modern China, 1994, 20, 1, 3–33.

    Part 2: Confucian Masters

    8. David L. Hall and Roger T. Ames, ‘Getting it Right: On Saving Confucius from the Confucians’, Philosophy East and West, 1984, 34, 1, 3–23.

    9. Herrlee Glessner Creel, ‘Confucius and Hsün-Tzu’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1931, 51, 1, 23–32.

    10. Whalen Lai, ‘Kao Tzu and Mencius on Mind: Analyzing a Paradigm Shift in Classical China’, Philosophy East and West, 1984, 34, 2, 147–59.

    11. Fung Yu-lan and Derk Bodde, ‘The Rise of Neo-Confucianism and its Borrowings from Buddhism and Taoism’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1942, 7, 2, 89–125.

    12. Tang Chün-i, ‘Chang Tsai’s Theory of Mind and its Metaphysical Basis’, Philosophy East and West, 1956, 6, 2, 113–36.

    13. Hao Chang, ‘Liang Ch`i-ch`ao and Intellectual Changes in the Late Nineteenth Century’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1969, 29, 1, 23–33.

    Part 3: Modern Relevance

    14. Herbert Allen Giles, ‘Confucianism in the Nineteenth Century’, North American Review, 1900, 171, 526, 359–74.

    15. Edward T. Williams, ‘Confucianism and the New China’, Harvard Theological Review, 1916, 9, 3, 258–85.

    16. Joseph R. Levenson, ‘The Breakdown of Confucianism: Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao before Exile: 1873–1898’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 1950, 11, 4, 448–85.

    17. Vitali Rubin , ‘The End of Confucianism?’, T’oung Pao, 1973, 59, 68–78.

    18. Gilbert Rozman, ‘Can Confucianism Survive in an Age of Universalism and Globalization?’, Pacific Affairs, 2002, 75, 1, 11–28.

    19. John Berthrong, ‘Boston Confucianism: The Third Wave of Global’, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 2003, 40, 1–2, 26–47.

    Volume II: Reinterpreting Confucian Ideas

    Part 1: Basic Concepts

    20. Wing-Tsit Chan, ‘The Evolution of the Confucian Concept Jên’, Philosophy East and West, 1955, 4, 4, 295–319.

    21. Julia Ching, ‘Son of Heaven: Sacral Kingship in Ancient China’, T’oung Pao, 1997, 83, 1/3, 3–41.

    22. Carsun Chang, ‘Reason and Intuition in Chinese Philosophy’, Philosophy East and West, 1954, 4, 2, 99–112.

    23. Jane Geaney, ‘Guarding Moral Boundaries: Shame in Early Confucianism’, Philosophy East and West, 2004, 54, 2, 113–42.

    24. Philip J. Ivanhoe, ‘Mengzi’s Conception of Courage’, Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy, 2006, V, 2, 221–34.

    25. Roger T. Ames, ‘Observing Ritual "Propriety" as Focusing the "Familiar" in the Affairs of the Day’, Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy, 2002, 1, 2, 143–56.

    26. Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, ‘Consciousness of T’ien in Chu Hsi’s Thought’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1987, 47, 1, 31–50.

    Part 2: New Interpretations

    27. Robert E. Allinson, ‘The Confucian Golden Rule: a Negative Formulation’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1985, 12, 3, 305–15.

    28. Jinhua Jia and Kwok Pang-Fei, ‘From Clan Manners to Ethical Obligation and Righteousness: A New Interpretation of the Term "Yi"’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2007, 17, 1, 33–42.

    29. Lee H. Yearley, ‘Hsun Tzu on the Mind: His Attempted Synthesis of Confucianism and Taoism’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1980, 39, 3, 465–80.

    30.T’ang Yung-t’ung and Walter Liebenthal, ‘Wang Pi’s New Interpretation of The I Ching and Lun-yu, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1947, 10, 2, 124–61.

    31. Allan W. Anderson, ‘On the Concept of Freedom in the I Ching: A Deconstructionist View of Self-Cultivation’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1990, 17, 3, 275–87.

    32. Daniel K. Gardner, ‘Ghosts and Spirits in the Sung Neo-Confucian World: Chu Hsi on kuei-shen’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1995, 115, 4, 598–611.

    33. Yong Huang, ‘Why be Moral? The Cheng Brothers’ Neo-Confucian Answer’, Journal of Religious Ethics, 2008, 36, 2, 321–53.

    34. John W. Dardess, ‘The Cheng Communal Family: Social Organization and Neo-Confucianism in Yuan and Early Ming China’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1974, 34, 7–52.

    Part 3: Modern Reflections

    35. Charles Wei-Hsun Fu, ‘The Mencian Theory of Mind (hsin) and Nature (hsing): A Modern, Philosophical Approach’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1983, 10, 4, 385–410.

    36. Joseph S. Wu, ‘Causality: Confucianism and Pragmatism’, Philosophy East and West, 1975, 25, 1, 13–22.

    37. Hwa Yol Jung, ‘Confucianism and Existentialism: Intersubjectivity as the Way of Man’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 1969, 30, 2, 186–202.

    38. Ryh-Song Yeh and John J. Lawrence, ‘Individualism and Confucian Dynamism: A Note on Hofstede’s Cultural Root to Economic Growth’, Journal of International Business Studies, 1995, 26, 3, 655–69.

    39. Xinzhong Yao, ‘Who is a Confucian Today? A Critical Reflection on the Issues Concerning Confucian Identity in Modern Times’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 2001, 16, 3, 313–28.

    Volume III: Reconstructing Confucian Ethics

    Part 1: Systematic Ethics

    40. Antonio S. Cua, ‘Problems of Chinese Moral Philosophy’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 2000, 27, 3, 269–85.

    41. Philip J. Ivanhoe, ‘A Happy Symmetry: Xunzi’s Ethical Thought’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1991, 59, 2, 309–22.

    42. Terence Chong, ‘Asian Values and Confucian Ethics: Malay Singaporeans’ Dilemma’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 2002, 32, 3, 394–406.

    43. Homer H. Dubs, ‘The Development of Altruism in Confucianism’, Philosophy East and West, 1951, 1, 1, 48–55.

    44. Chung-Ying Cheng, ‘Confucian Onto-Hermeneutics: Morality and Ontology’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 2000, 27, 1, 33–68.

    45. Edward Slingerland, ‘Virtue Ethics, the "Analects", and the Problem of Commensurability’, Journal of Religious Ethics, 2001, 29, 1, 97–125.

    Part 2: Morality in Contexts

    46. Michael Nylan, ‘Confucian Piety and Individualism in Han China’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1996, 116, 1, 1–27.

    47. Donald Holzman, ‘The Place of Filial Piety in Ancient China’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1998, 118, 2, 185–99.

    48. Gary G. Hamilton, ‘Patriarchy, Patrimonialism, and Filial Piety: A Comparison of China and Western Europe’, British Journal of Sociology, 1990, 41, 1, 77–104.

    49. Stephen A. Wilson, ‘Conformity, Individuality, and the Nature of Virtue: A Classical Confucian Contribution to Contemporary Ethical Reflection’, Journal of Religious Ethics, 1995, 23, 2, 263–89.

    50. David Yau-Fai Ho, ‘Filial Piety, Authoritarian Moralism and Cognitive Conservatism in Chinese Societies’, Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 1994, 120, 3, 347–65.

    51. Chad Hansen, ‘Freedom and Moral Responsibility in Confucian Ethics’, Philosophy East and West, 1972, 22, 2, 169–86.

    52. Bryan W. Van Norden, ‘Mengzi and Virtue Ethics’, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 2003, 40, 1–2, 120–36.

    Part 3: Tension in Ethic Relations

    53. Wei-Ming Tu, ‘The Creative Tension between Jên and Li’, Philosophy East and West, 1968, 18, 1/2, 29–39.

    54. Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, ‘The Development of Tension between Virtue and Achievement in Early Confucianism: Attitudes Toward Kuan Chung and Hegemon (pa) as Conceptual Symbols’, Philosophy East and West, 1981, 31, 1, 17–28.

    55. Norman Kutcher, ‘The Fifth Relationship: Dangerous Friendships in the Confucian Context’, American Historical Review, 2000, 105, 5, 1615–29.

    56. Bret Hinsch, ‘Confucian Filial Piety and the Construction of the Ideal Chinese Buddhist Woman’, Journal of Chinese Religion, 2002, 30, 49–75.

    57. G. H. Mahood, ‘Socrates and Confucius: Moral Agents or Moral Philosophers?’, Philosophy East and West, 1971, 21, 2, 177–88.

    58. Chung-Ying Cheng, ‘Critical Reflections on Rawlsian Justice Versus Confucian Justice’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1997, 24, 4, 417–26.

    59. Tak Sing Cheung and Ambrose Yeo-chi King, ‘Righteousness and Profitableness: The Moral Choices of Contemporary Confucian Entrepreneurs’, Journal of Business Ethics, 2004, 54, 3, 245–60.

    Volume IV: Reappraising Confucian Ideals

    Part 1: Political Impact

    60. Charles Holcombe, ‘The Exemplar State: Ideology, Self-Cultivation, and Power in Fourth-Century China’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1989, 49, 1, 93–139.

    61. Howard J. Wechsler, ‘The Confucian Impact on Early T’ang Decision-Making’, T’oung Pao, 1980, 66, 1–40.

    62. Fred Dallmayr, ‘Tradition, Modernity, and Confucianism’, Human Studies, 1993, 16, 1/2, 203–11.

    63. Russell Arben Fox, ‘Confucian and Communitarian Responses to Liberal Democracy’, Review of Politics, 1997, 59, 3, 561–92.

    64. Shaun O’Dwyer, ‘Democracy and Confucian Values’, Philosophy East and West, 2003, 53, 1, 39–63.

    65. Gilbert Reid, ‘Revolution as Taught by Confucianism’, International Journal of Ethics, 1923, 33, 2, 188–201.

    66. L. H. M. Ling and Chih-yu Shih, ‘Confucianism with a Liberal Face: The Meaning of Democratic Politics in Postcolonial Taiwan’, Review of Politics, 1998, 60, 1, 55–82.

    Part 2: Social Transformation

    67. Kwang-Kuo Hwang, ‘The Deep Structure of Confucianism: A Social Psychological Approach’, Asian Philosophy, 2001, 11, 3, 179–204.

    68. Denis Twitchett, ‘A Confucian’s View of the Taxation of Commerce: Ts’ui Jung’s Memorial of 703’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1973, 36, 429–45.

    69. Wm. Theodore de Bary, ‘Neo-Confucian Education and Post-Confucian East Asia’, Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1984, 37, 5, 7–17.

    70. Tu Weiming, ‘The Ecological Turn in New Confucian Humanism: Implications for China and the World’, Daedalus, 2001, 130, 4, 243–64.

    71. Li, Chenyang, ‘The Confucian Concept of Jen and the Feminist Ethics of Care: A Comparative Study’, Hypatia, 1994, 9, 1, 70–89.

    72. Edward J. Romar, ‘Virtue is Good Business: Confucianism as a Practical Business Ethic’, Journal of Business Ethics, 2002, 38, 1/2, 119–31.

    Part 3: Self-Cultivation and Spirituality

    73. Herbert Fingarette, ‘Human Community as Holy Rite: An Interpretation of Confucius’ Analects’, Harvard Theological Review, 1966, 59, 1, 53–67.

    74. Rodney L. Taylor, ‘The Centered Self: Religious Autobiography in the Neo-Confucian Tradition’, History of Religions, 1978, 17, 3/4, 266–83.

    75. Shu-Hsien Liu, ‘The Confucian Approach to the Problem of Transcendence and Immanence’, Philosophy East and West, 1972, 22, 1, 45–52.

    76. Xinzhong Yao, ‘The Confucian Self and Experiential Spirituality’, Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy, 2008, 8, 3, 393–406.

    77. Tucker, Mary Evelyn, ;Religious Aspects of Japanese Neo-Confucianism: The Thought of Nakae Toju and Kaibara Ekken’, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 1988, 15, 1, 55–70.

    78. Kang-nam Oh, ‘Sagehood and Metanoia: The Confucian-Christian Encounter in Korea’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1993, 61, 2, 303–20.