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The importance of competitiveness has increased rapidly in recent years, where a fresh look at the different forms in which competitiveness manifests is needed. Though the exceptional growth of East Asian economies has been hypothesised previously from a socio-cultural perspective, links have often been vague with little empirical evidence to support them. This book proposes that a unique paradigm of competitiveness has developed in the East as a result of the cultural traditions and social values influenced by Confucianism, and extends this hypothesis by exploring a critical missing link: the role of discipline.
Based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and World Economic Forum (WEF), this book sheds light on important insights, through empirical evidence, that culture and discipline play an important role toward a country’s academic performance, and ultimately, competitiveness. In comparing six geographical clusters, this book analyses data by applying the "Inter-ocular Test" – visualisation of data distributions – to supplement traditional statistical mean comparisons. The findings advance the discourse on culture and performance, by drawing attention to the significant impact that improving discipline can have for a nation’s productivity–not only those of Confucian East Asia. Written with the evolving global economy in mind, this book highlights the relevance of discipline for shaping individual productivity for the future workforce, and offers new perspectives on how this can be achieved for all societies through three key contributions: Taxonomy of Discipline dimensions, "Parent-Engagement-School-Discipline Taxonomy" (PESD), and Wheel of Competitiveness.
Building on the authors’ prior works, this book offers a comprehensive look at three interrelated concepts: Confucianism, Discipline, and Competitiveness, and how they relate to performance in East Asia. Written in an accessible style, this book will be a valuable guide for students, educators, practitioners, and policy-makers who seek to further understand the valuable role of discipline in shaping the success of societies, present and future.
Table of Contents
List of Tables and Figures
CHAPTER 1 – SETTING THE SCENE FOR CDC
Structure of This Book
A Foundation for CDC
A Brief History
Culture as a Competitive Resource
The Missing Link
Competitiveness: The Phenomenon CDC Explains
Education and the Economy
What Does This Mean for the Future of Work?
The Gig Economy
Data Sources and Methodology
CHAPTER 2 – CONFUCIANISM-DISCIPLINE-COMPETITIVENESS (CDC) MODEL
Our CDC Model at the Micro-Level
Unit of Analysis
Association between School Discipline and Academic Performance
CDC under the SEM Probe
Explaining the Difference: A Confucian Perspective
Education as a Transformative Experience
Effort over Ability
Socialisation under Filial Piety
CHAPTER 3 – DISCIPLINE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE
A Confucian Approach to Discipline
PISA Dimensions under the Microscope
Student Learning Time
Student Outlook on Education
CHAPTER 4 – CDC OVER TIME: A SIMULATION APPROACH
Diachronic Analysis of Discipline and Academic Performance
Diachronic Analysis of Elite Performers
Global Competitiveness over Time
Academic Performance of Global Competitiveness over Time
Predictive Model of Educational Achievement and Global Competitiveness
Wheel of Competitiveness
Simulation: Discipline, Academic Performance and National Competitiveness
Take Home Messages from Diachronic CDC Analysis and Simulations
CHAPTER 5 – CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK ON CDC
Outlook on CDC
Dr Chris Baumann is an Associate Professor at Macquarie University, Sydney, a Visiting Professor at Seoul National University (SNU) in South Korea, and a Visiting Associate Professor at Osaka University in Japan; formerly also at Aarhus University in Denmark.
Dr Hume Winzar is an Associate Professor at Macquarie University, Sydney, and director of the degree in Business Analytics.
Doris Viengkham is a doctoral candidate in the Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE) at Macquarie University, Sydney.