2nd Edition

Conservation of Easel Paintings

Edited By Joyce Hill Stoner, Rebecca Rushfield Copyright 2021
    948 Pages 320 Color Illustrations
    by Routledge

    948 Pages 320 Color Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Conservation of Easel Paintings, Second Edition provides a much-anticipated update to the previous edition, which has come to be known internationally as an invaluable and comprehensive text on the history, philosophy and methods of the treatment of easel paintings.

    Including 49 chapters written by more than 90 respected authors from around the world, this volume offers the necessary background knowledge in technical art history, artists’ materials and scientific methods of examination and documentation. Later sections of the book provide information about the varying approaches and methods for treatment and issues of preventive conservation, as well as valuable reflections on storage, shipping, and exhibition. Including exciting developments that have taken place since the last edition was published, the book also covers new techniques of examination, especially MacroXRF scanning and Reflectance Transmission Imagery. Drawing on research presented at recent professional conferences, information about innovative methods for cleaning modern and contemporary paintings and insights into modern oil paints is also included.

    Incorporating the latest regulations and understanding of health and safety practices and integrating theory with practice throughout, Conservation of Easel Paintings, Second Edition will continue to be an indispensable reference for practicing conservators. It will also be an essential resource for students taking conservation courses around the world.

    PART I

    Technical art history, examination, documentation, and scientific analysis

    1 Art technological source research: documentary sources on European painting to the twentieth century, with Appendices I–VII

    Jilleen Nadolny, Mark Clarke, Erma Hermens, Ann Massing, and Leslie Carlyle

    2 Exploring the grammar of oil paint through the use of historically accurate reconstructions

    Leslie Carlyle

    3 Collecting and archiving information from living artists for the conservation of contemporary art

    Ysbrand Hummelen and Tatja Scholte, with an appendix of additional archival sources

    A history of Western easel painting materials from the early Renaissance to 2020

    4 History and use of panels or other rigid supports for easel paintings

    Edited by Jørgen Wadum and Noëlle Streeton

    5 History of fabric supports

    Christina Young, with a section on canvas stencils by Alexander W. Katlan

    6 Stretchers, tensioning, and attachments

    Barbara A. Buckley

    7 Grounds, 1400– 1900

    Maartje Stols- Witlox

    Including: Grounds in the twentieth century and beyond

    Bronwyn Ormsby and Mark Gottsegen

    8 Pigments in Western easel painting

    Nicholas Eastaugh, Jilleen Nadolny, and Sarah Lowengard

    Including: Binding media

    Erma Hermens and Joyce Townsend

    9 Ageing and deterioration of traditional oil and tempera paints

    Annelies van Loon, Petria Noble, and Aviva Burnstock

    10 Modern paints

    10.1: Modern synthetic polymer paints

    Tom Learner

    10.2: Modern oil paints

    Klaas Jan van den Berg, Judith Lee, and Bronwyn Ormsby

    11 A brief survey of historical varnishes

    Alan Phenix and Joyce Townsend

    12 Varnishing of acrylic paintings by artists

    Mark Golden

    Techniques of examination and documentation used by the conservator and conservation scientist

    13 Written documentation for paintings conservation

    Clare Finn

    14 Image documentation for paintings conservation

    David Saunders and Loa Ludvigsen

    15 Notes on the history of conservation documentation: examples from the UK and USA

    Morwenna Blewett

    16 The classification of craquelure patterns

    Spike Bucklow

    17 The technical examination and documentation of easel paintings

    Rhona MacBeth and Caitlin Breare

    18 Optical microscopy

    Nicholas Eastaugh and Valentine Walsh

    19 Identification of textile fibres found in common painting supports

    Debora D. Mayer

    20 Cross- section microscopy analysis and fluorescent staining

    Richard C. Wolbers, Susan L. Buck, and Peggy Olley

    21 A history of early scientific examination and analysis of painting materials ca. 1780 to the mid- twentieth century

    Jilleen Nadolny

    22 Research into and analysis of the materials of easel paintings

    Joyce Townsend, Katrien Keune, and Jaap Boon


    Methods and approaches for the treatment and care of easel paintings

    Structural conservation of easel paintings

    23 Consolidation of flaking paint and ground

    Michael von der Goltz, Ina Birkenbeul, Isabel Horovitz, Morwenna Blewett, and Irina Dolgikh

    24 Tear mending and other structural treatments of canvas paintings, before or instead of lining

    Winfried Heiber, Carolyn Tomkiewicz, Mikkel Scharff, and Rustin Levenson

    25 Lining easel paintings

    Stephen Hackney, Joan Reifsnyder, Mireille te Marvelde, and Mikkel Scharff

    26 The structural conservation of paintings on wooden panel supports

    Paul Ackroyd

    The cleaning of easel paintings

    27 Picture cleaning: positivism and metaphysics

    David Bomford

    28 Research on the Pettenkofer method and the historical understanding of paint film swelling and interaction

    Sibylle Schmitt

    29 Considerations on removing or retaining overpainted additions and alterations

    Michael von der Goltz and Joyce Hill Stoner

    30 Aqueous methods for the cleaning of paintings

    Richard Wolbers and Christopher Stavroudis, with revisions and additions by Matthew Cushman

    31 Removal of varnish: organic solvents as cleaning agents

    Alan Phenix and Richard Wolbers, updated by Joyce Townsend, Stefan Zumbühl, and Angelica Bartoletti with Judith Lee and Bronwyn Ormsby

    32 Case study in the use of lasers to remove overpaint from Ad Reinhardt’s Black Painting, 1960– 66

    Lena Stringari

    33 Cleaning concerns for acrylic emulsion paints

    Bronwyn Ormsby and Tom Learner

    Compensation: filling, retouching/ inpainting, varnishing (or not)

    34 History of visual compensation for paintings

    Jilleen Nadolny

    35 Filling

    Laura Fuster- López

    36 The imitative retouching of easel paintings

    Shawn Digney- Peer, Karen Thomas, Roy Perry, Joyce Townsend, and Stephen Gritt

    37 Varnishing as part of the conservation treatment of easel paintings

    Michael von der Goltz, Robert G. Proctor, Jr, Jill Whitten, Lance Mayer, and Gay Myers, with Ann Hoenigswald and Michael Swicklik


    Preventive conservation, health and safety, outreach, and professional organisations

    38 Travelling exhibitions and transporting paintings

    Barbara A. Ramsay

    39 Storage of easel paintings

    Tom Dixon

    40 The lighting of easel paintings

    Jim Druzik and Stefan Michalski

    41 Understanding the deterioration of paintings by microorganisms and insects

    Karin Petersen and Jens Klocke

    42 The sustainable conservation management of exhibitions

    Jeremy Hutchings

    43 Emergency preparedness and recovery

    Rustin Levenson

    44 Framing, glazing, backing, and hanging of paintings on canvas

    Tom Dixon

    45 Framing and microclimate enclosures for panel paintings

    Ian McClure

    46 Health and safety concerns in the paintings conservation studio

    Monona Rossol, Mary McGinn, and Joyce H. Townsend

    47 International public outreach projects

    Joyce Hill Stoner

    48 Recommending materials to artists

    Brian Baade and Kristin deGhetaldi

    49 Conservation organisations and professional standards

    Rebecca Rushfield


    Joyce Hill Stoner is Rosenberg Professor in the Art Conservation Department at the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum, where she has taught paintings conservation since 1976. She was awarded the American Institute for Conservation’s Lifetime Achievement award in 2003 and the CAA/Heritage Preservation Award for Distinction in Scholarship and Conservation in 2011.

    Rebecca Rushfield is a New York City-based conservation consultant with an interest in the history and literature of the field. She is active in the work of the American Institute for Conservation and the ICOM Committee for Conservation, and received the Gettens Award for outstanding service to the AIC.