Conservation of Historic Brick Structures
Despite the widespread use of brick construction throughout the world, there has been no major investigation into its deterioration and durability. This book provides the results of a major international study led by West Germany which examines the causes of decay in addition to the treatment and methods of conserving brickwork and historic mortars. The deterioration mechanisms discussed cover bio deterioration, salt damage and the effects of air pollutants and moisture on masonry. Considerable attention is also devoted to historic mortars and renders, their analysis, behaviour under the stress of air pollution and the development of compatible modern formulations. Conservation methods for brick masonry, including de-salination, protective coatings and injection grouting are examined in detail. A useful and extensive range of case study material is also provided. This volume represents the most comprehensive, state of the art overview of the conservation of historic brick masonry, and will be an invaluable source of reference for all conservation practitioners and researchers working in this field.
Table of Contents
Introduction and research overview vBrick Masonry Technology v A brief history of brickmaking in Northern Germany v Subsequent determination of the firing temperature of historic brick v Degradation Mechanisms v Causes and mechanisms of the decay of historic brick buildings in Northern Germany v Indoor brick damage: investigation of the roles of pore size and salts v Stages of damage in the structure of brick due to salt crystallization v Influence of salt content on the drying behavior of brick v Bioreceptivity and biodeterioration of brick structures vDiagnosis of Damage v Application of NDE to masonry structures: current technology and future needs v Development and application of acoustic tomography to masonry v Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of hand-molded brick v A damage atlas and questionnaire for evaluation of deterioration of ancient brick masonry structure vField Studies, Laboratory Tests and Modeling v Decay of brickwork surfaces: laboratory tests and study on outdoor full-scale models v Application of neutron scattering techniques to the investigation of brick and mortar v Transport of salt solutions in brickwork v Influence of brick microstructure on the characteristics of mortar v Mortars and Renderings v Characterization of ancient mortars from Germany and the Netherlands v Gypsum and lime mortars of historic German brick buildings: analytical results and restoration material requirements v Characterization of mortars and plasters from historic monuments in Turkey v Air pollution trends in Germany v Influence of air pollutants on renderings: experimental protocols and background v Influence of air pollutants on renderings: exposure tests v Influence of air pollutants on renderings: reaction zones on buildings vs orientation v Salt-induced gypsum formation on renderings v Conservation Treatments and Materials v Adobe brick of an ancient city wall in Reggio Calabria v Water-repellent treatment on the brick wall of the external facade of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua v Water-resistant gypsum-lime mortars for the restoration of historic brick buildings v Injection grouting for the repair of brick masonry v Desalination of brickwork and other porous media v Weathering and conservation of north German terracotta: Schwerin Castle as a case study v Change in physico-technical characteristics by modifying the material composition v Case Studies v Measuring moisture content in the Gothic brick masonry of the Luebecker Ratsbierkeller v Conservation of St Pancras Chambers, designed as the Midland Grand Hotel v Desalination of brick masonry and consolidation treatment in the Crypt of S. Marco Basilica v Influence of effective material properties on dynamic analysis and earthquake response of Hagia Sophia v Deterioration and restoration of brickwork at the Octagon House, Washington, D.C. v Diagnosis of salt damage at a smokehouse in Colonial Williamsburg v Uppark: a case study in fire damage to brickwork v Historic plasters of village churches in Brandenburg v Bricks under the influence of huge salt immissions: buildings of a Thuringian potash mine v Appendices, Indexes.