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Coolant Flow Instabilities in Power Equipment





ISBN 9781138073616
Published November 22, 2017 by CRC Press
388 Pages 206 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Thermal-hydraulic instability can potentially impair thermal reliability of reactor cores or other power equipment components. Thus it is important to address stability issues in power equipment associated with thermal and nuclear installations, particularly in thermal nuclear power plants, chemical and petroleum industries, space technology, and radio, electronic, and computer cooling systems. Coolant Flow Instabilities in Power Equipment synthesizes results from instability investigations around the world, presenting an analysis and generalization of the published technical literature.

The authors include individual examples on flow stability in various types of equipment, including boilers, reactors, steam generators, condensers, heat exchangers, turbines, pumps, deaerators, bubblers, and pipelines. They also present information that has not been widely available until recently, such as thermal-acoustic instability, flow instability with supercritical parameters, and single-phase coolant flow static instability. The material described in this book is derived from vast amounts of experimental data from thermal-physical test facilities and full-scale installations. It is presented in a manner accessible to readers without advanced mathematical backgrounds.

Particular attention has been paid to oscillatory (low-frequency and thermal-acoustic) and static thermal-hydraulic coolant flow instability. In addition, the physical mechanism of instability has been considered in detail. This book provides knowledge of the various types of flow instability, the equipment where this instability can manifest, and the ensuing consequences, as well as makes recommendations concerning possible removal or mitigation of these consequences. The authors provide this information as a useful reference for readers to facilitate the enhanced safety of modern power equipment through qualitative evaluation of design and flow parameters and subsequent selection of the optimal means for increasing flow stability.

Table of Contents

Two-Phase Flow Oscillatory Thermal-Hydraulic Instability
Classification of Types of Thermal-Hydraulic Instability and Typical Thermal and Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions
Two-Phase Flow Instability at Low Exit Qualities
Two-Phase Flow Oscillatory Instability at High Exit Qualities (Density-Wave Instability)
Simplifying Assumptions Underlying Mathematical Model and Their Effect on Accuracy of Thermal-Hydraulic Stability Boundary Prediction

Oscillatory Stability Boundary in Hydrodynamic Interaction of Parallel Channels and Requirements to Simulate Unstable Processes on Test Facilities
Qualitative Effect of Hydrodynamic Interaction of Parallel Channels on Oscillatory Stability Boundary
Simulation of Thermal-Hydraulic Instability in Complex Systems

Simplified Correlations for Determining the Two-Phase Flow Thermal-Hydraulic Oscillatory Stability Boundary
Introduction

The CKTI Method
The Saha-Zuber Method
The Method of the Institute for Physics and Energetics (IPE)
Determination of Oscillatory Stability Boundary at Supercritical Pressures

Some Notes on the Oscillatory Flow Stability Boundary
Experimental Determination of the Stability Boundary
Experimental Determination of Thermal-Hydraulic Stability Boundaries of a Flow Using Operating Parameter Noise
The First Approximation Stability Investigation
Stability Investigations Based on Direct Numerical Solution of the Unsteady System of Nonlinear Equations


Static Instability
Basic Definitions
Ambiguity of Hydraulic Curve due to Appearance of a Boiling Section at the Heated Channel Exit
Hydraulic Characteristic Ambiguity in the Presence of a Superheating Section
Hydraulic Characteristic Ambiguity in Cases of Coolant Downflow and Upflow–Downflow
Pressure Drop Oscillations
Some Other Mechanisms Inducing Static Instability

Thermal-Acoustic Oscillations in Heated Channels
Thermal-Acoustic Oscillations at Subcritical Pressures
TAOs at Supercritical Pressures

Instability of Condensing Flows
Introduction

Instability of Condenser Tube and Hotwell System
Interchannel Instability in System of Parallel-Connected Condensing Tubes
Water Hammers in Horizontal and Almost Horizontal Steam and Subcooled Water Tubes
Instability of Bubbling Condensers

Some Cases of Flow Instability in Pipelines
Self-Oscillations in Inlet Line-Pump System
Instability of Condensate Line-Deaerator System
Vibration of Pipelines with Two-Phase Adiabatic Flows
Two-Phase Flow Instabilities and Bubbling

References

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Author(s)

Biography

Professor Vladimir B. Khabensky is the leading scholar in the field of heat transfer and hydrodynamics of the single- and double-phase flows in thermal and nuclear power engineering. He has been celebrated for his contribution to mathematical modeling of nonstationary thermo-hydraulic processes in NPP. More recently, he has contributed greatly to understanding of physicochemical and thermo-hydraulic processes in the high-temperature molten corium in the context of the problem of NPP safety during a severe accident involving the core meltdown. He has authored over 160 research manuscripts and inventions.

Professor Vladimir A. Gerliga is renowned for his contribution to the field of nuclear power plant safety, hydraulic gas dynamics, pumps, turbines, and power installations of space vehicles. His research focused on physical and mathematical models of thermo-acoustic fluctuations in the channel core of nuclear power plants and designing methods for instability prediction in the main circuit on natural circulation by the analysis of noise. He has authored 5 books and over 150 research manuscripts.