1st Edition

Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks The Complete Spectrum Cycle

By Mohamed Ibnkahla Copyright 2015
    349 Pages
    by CRC Press

    349 Pages 168 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks: The Complete Spectrum Cycle provides a solid understanding of the foundations of cognitive radio technology, from spectrum sensing, access, and handoff to routing, trading, and security. Written in a tutorial style with several illustrative examples, this comprehensive book:

    • Gives an overview of cognitive radio systems and explains the different components of the spectrum cycle
    • Features step-by-step analyses of the different algorithms and systems, supported by extensive computer simulations, figures, tables, and references
    • Fulfills the need for a single source of information on all aspects of the spectrum cycle, including the physical, link, medium access, network, and application layers

    Offering a unifying view of the various approaches and methodologies, Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks: The Complete Spectrum Cycle presents the state of the art of cognitive radio technology, addressing all phases of the spectrum access cycle.




    Introduction to Cognitive Radio


    Cognitive Radio Framework

    Definition of Cognitive Radio

    Functions of Cognitive Radio Framework

    Transceiver Architecture

    Critical Design Challenges

    Functions of the Spectrum Management Process

    Paradigms of Cognitive Radio

    Interweave Paradigm

    Underlay Paradigm

    Overlay Paradigm


    Organization of This Book


    Spectrum Sensing


    Spectrum Sensing

    Matched Filtering (Coherent Detector)

    Energy Detector

    Feature Detection


    Design Trade-Off and Challenges

    Multiband Spectrum Sensing


    Serial Spectrum Sensing Techniques

    Parallel Spectrum Sensing (Multiple Single-Band Detectors)

    Wavelet Sensing

    Compressed Sensing

    Angle-Based Sensing

    Blind Sensing

    Other Algorithms




    Cooperative Spectrum Acquisition


    Basics of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Hard Combining

    Soft Combining

    Hybrid Combining

    Cooperative Spectrum Access in Multiband Cognitive Radio Networks

    Examples of Cooperative Spectrum Acquisition Techniques

    Decision-Based CSS Using Energy Detection

    Performance Analysis

    Cooperative Transmission Techniques

    Chase-Combining Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

    Cooperative Diversity

    Selective Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Strategies

    Dual-Threshold Selective CSS Strategy

    Maximum Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Strategy

    Maximum–Minimum CSS Strategy

    Comparison and Discussion




    Cooperative Spectrum Acquisition in the Presence of Interference


    Chase-Combining HARQ

    Performance Results

    Regenerative Cooperative Diversity

    Average Spectral Efficiency

    Outage Probability

    Error Probability

    Simulation Results


    Spectrum Underlay

    Underlay Access

    Relaying Using Decode and Forward (DF)

    Relaying Using AF

    Incremental Relaying

    Simulation Results and Illustrations

    Error Probability



    Spectrum Sensing: Performance Measures and Design Trade-Offs


    Receiver Operating Characteristics

    Single Band

    Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Multiband Cognitive Radio

    Throughput Performance Measures

    Fundamental Limits and Trade-Offs

    Sensing Time Optimization

    Diversity and Sampling Trade-Offs

    Power Control and Interference Limits Trade-Offs

    Resource Allocation Trade-Offs



    Spectrum Handoff


    Spectrum Mobility

    Relationship with Other Spectrum Management Functions

    Spectrum Handoff Strategies

    Nonhandoff Strategy

    Reactive Handoff Strategy

    Proactive Handoff Strategy

    Hybrid Handoff Strategy


    Design Requirements for Spectrum Mobility Management

    Transport-Layer Protocol Adaptation

    Cross-Layer Link Maintenance and Optimization

    Search for Best Backup Channel

    Channel Contention during Spectrum Handoff

    Common Control Channel

    Performance Metrics

    Mathematical Models for Spectrum Handoff

    Performance of Spectrum Handoff Strategies

    Time Relationship Model of Spectrum Handoff

    MB-CRN Handoff



    MAC Protocols in Cognitive Radio Networks


    Functionality of MAC Protocol in Spectrum Access

    Difference between Traditional MAC and CR MAC

    Centralized versus Distributed Architectures

    Concept of Common Control Channel in CR MAC

    Classification of MAC protocols

    Interframe Spacing and MAC Challenges in the Absence of CCC

    Interframe Spacing in CSMA-/CA-Based Protocols

    MAC Challenges in the Absence of CCC

    Network Setup in the Absence of CCC

    Fair Allocation of CCC

    QoS in CR MAC

    Distributed QoS-Aware Cognitive MAC (QC-MAC) Protocol

    QoS-Aware MAC (QA-MAC) Protocol

    Mobility Management

    Primary User Experience and Mobility Support with CCC

    Mobility Support without CCC



    Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Network Models and Local Control Schemes


    Cognitive Radio Networks Versus CRAHN

    Spectrum Sharing in CRAHN

    MAC Protocols in CRAHN

    Scaling Laws of CRAHN

    CRAHN Models

    Spectrum Availability Map

    Spectrum Availability Probability

    Variable-Size Spectrum Bands

    Multichannel Multiradio Support

    Resultant Channel Model

    Local and Global Information

    Local Control in Spectrum Management

    Game-Theoretic Approach

    Graph Coloring–Based Algorithms

    Partially Observable Markov Decision Process

    Bioinspired Schemes

    Local Control Schemes for Spectrum Sharing

    How to Apply Local Control Schemes in CRAHN?

    Framework of Local Control Schemes

    Fairness in Spectrum Sharing

    Protocol Design and Illustrations



    Medium Access in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks


    Network Model and Requirements

    System Model


    CM-MAC: CSMA-/CA-Based MAC Protocol for CRAHNs

    Protocol Description

    Channel Aggregation

    Spectrum Access and Sharing

    Mobility Support

    Analytical Analysis

    Mobility Effect


    Case Study

    Numerical Results



    Routing in Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks


    Routing Problems in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Classification of Cognitive Radio Networks

    Spectrum Knowledge

    PU Activity

    Centralized and Basic Distributed Protocols

    Centralized Protocols

    Distributed Protocols

    Control Information

    Source- or Destination-Based Routing

    Geographical Protocol for Dynamic Networks

    Initial Route Setup

    Greedy Forwarding

    PU Avoidance

    Joint Channel-Path Optimization

    Simulations and Illustrations

    Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Multihop Protocol

    Protocol Overview

    OCR Performance Metrics

    Probabilistic Formulations

    Further Improvements

    Simulation Results and Illustrations

    Summary of Protocols



    Economics of Cognitive Radio


    Game Theory

    Strategic-Form Game Model

    Market Evolution and Equilibrium

    Cooperative Trading Model for Cognitive Radio

    Fixed-Price Trading Model

    Auction Models

    Single-Sided Auctions

    Double-Sided Auctions

    Simulations and Illustrations

    Fixed-Price Markets

    Single-Sided Auctions

    Areas for Future Research



    Security Concerns in Cognitive Radio Networks


    Security Properties in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Trust for Cognitive Radio Security

    Foundation of Trust Evaluation

    Fundamental Axioms of Trust

    Trust Models

    Effect of Trust Management

    Route Disruption Attacks


    Liu–Wang Security Mechanisms

    Illustrations of Liu–Wang’s Security Mechanisms

    Jamming Attacks


    System Model

    Optimal Strategy with Perfect Knowledge

    Illustrations for Wu–Wang–Liu’s Model

    PU Emulation Attacks

    Transmitter Verification Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

    Chen–Park–Reed’s Noninteractive Localization of Primary Signal Transmitters

    Simulation Results of the Chen–Park–Reed Scheme





    Mohamed Ibnkahla is a full professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. He holds a Ph.D and Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France. Dr. Ibnkahla led several national and international projects in wireless communications, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio technology. A popular invited speaker, he has authored 5 books and more than 150 book chapters and journal and conference papers. He serves as the editor of a number of international journals and book series, and is a registered professional engineer of Ontario, Canada.

    "... a good source for a beginner in the research area of cognitive radios. ... The author does a very good job of providing a broad overview of the spectrum cycle of CR networks from a basic introduction to a discussion of security issues. The chapters are written well and have a good combination of explanations and mathematical formulations. The exhaustive references at the end of the chapters will also aid in follow-up reading."
    —Satyajayant Misra, from IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2015