Corrections in the Community: 7th Edition (Paperback) book cover

Corrections in the Community

7th Edition

By Edward J. Latessa, Brian Lovins

Routledge

400 pages | 69 Color Illus.

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Description

Corrections in the Community, Seventh Edition, examines the current state of community corrections and proposes an evidence-based approach to making programs more effective. As the U.S. prison and jail systems continue to struggle, options like probation, parole, alternative sentencing, and both residential and non-residential programs in the community continue to grow in importance. This text provides a solid foundation and includes the most salient information available on the broad and dynamic subject of community corrections. Authors Latessa and Lovins organize and evaluate the latest data on the assessment of offender risk/need/responsivity and successful methods that continue to improve community supervision and its effects on different types of clients, from those with mental illness or substance abuse problems to juveniles.

This book provides students with a thorough understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects of community corrections and prepares them to evaluate and strengthen these crucial programs. This seventh edition includes new chapters on pretrial, and graduated responses as well as updated information on specialty drug and other problem-solving courts. Now found in every state, these specialty courts represent a way to deal with some of the most devastating problems that face our population, be it substance abuse or re-entry to the community from prison. Chapters contain key terms, boxed material, review questions, and recommended readings, and a glossary is provided to clarify important concepts. The instructor’s guide is expanded, offering sample syllabi for semester, quarter, and online classes; student exercises; research and information links; and a transcription of the Bill of Rights. A test bank and lecture slides are also available at no cost.

Authors Latessa and Lovins organize and evaluate the latest data on the assessment of offender risk/need/responsivity and successful methods that continue to improve community supervision. They analyze its effects on different types of clients, from juveniles to those with mental illness or substance abuse problems.

Table of Contents

Contents

About the Authors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 The Criminal Justice System

Key Terms

Components of the Criminal Justice System

Law Enforcement

Courts

Corrections in the Community

Probation in America

The U.S. Prison Population

Parole in America

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 2 Pretrial Bond, Bail, and Diversion

Key Terms

The purpose of pretrial services

The history of pretrial services

Pretrial process

Arrest

Jail booking

Assessment

Types of Release

Personal Recognizance Bonds

Money Bail

Pretrial Supervision

Current State of Pretrial Services

Pretrial Diversion Programs

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 3 Sentencing and Community Corrections

Contemporary sentencing practices

The purpose of criminal sanctions

Sentencing options

The Development of the Indeterminate Sentence

Rapid Changes in Sentencing

Move to a More Punitive Approach

Sentencing Fairness

Reform Efforts

Determinate Sentencing

Sentencing Guidelines

Three-Strike Laws

A New Era Has Begun

The Jail

Split Sentences

Key Terms

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 4 Probation in America

Key Terms

Founders of Probation

Philosophical Bases of Probation

The Growth of Probation

Development of Probation at the Federal Level

Probation Today

Objectives and Advantages of Probation

Granting Probation

The Presentence Investigation Report

Functions and Objectives

Content

Evaluation and Recommendation

Factors Related to Sentencing Decisions

Conditions of Probation

Probation Fees

Restitution and Community Service

Alternative Probation Procedures

Prosecutorial Pretrial Intervention

Probation by Withholding Adjudication

Combining Probation and Incarceration

Probation Revocation

Probation Effectiveness

Probation Versus Alternative Dispositions

Probation with Treatment

Probation Outcome with Statistics

Cost-Effectiveness

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 5 Parole in America

Key Terms

The Development of Parole

The Roots of American Parole

Transportation

The Rise of Early Prison Reform

Early Practices in Other Nations

Early American Practices

The Spread of Parole

Early Public Sentiments

Legal Challenges to Parole

Administrative Challenges

Granting Parole

Overview of the Parole Process

Current Operations

Parole Selection Process

Civil Commitments

Parole Hearing

Factors Influencing Parole Decisions

Probability of Recidivism

Factors for Granting Parole Other than Probability of Recidivism

Factors for Denying Parole Other than Probability of Recidivism

Parole Board Release Decisions

Conditions of Parole

Parole Revocation

Problems with Parole Board Discretionary Power

Parole Board Decision-Making Guidelines

Abolition of Parole

Parole Effectiveness

Prison Programs

Parole Conditions

Parole Release

Type of Crimes and Parole Risks

Rearrest Rates

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 6 Offender Assessment

Key Terms

Importance of Assessment and Classification

Principles of Offender Classification

Risk

Need

Correlates of Criminal Behavior

Responsivity

Professional Discretion

The Evolution of Classification

Juvenile Risk/Need Assessment Tools

Specialized Assessment Tools

Criticisms of Assessment Tools

Advantages of Assessment Tools

Reliability and Validity

Points about Good Assessment

Other Problems with Assessment

Standards of Classification

Classification and Female Offenders

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Reading

References

Chapter 7 Roles of Probation and Parole Officers

Key Terms

Probation and Parole Officers

Agency Philosophy and Societal Influences

Role Typologies

Referee or Coach?

Characteristics of Effective Probation Officers (Coaches)

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 8 Supervision Strategies and Delivering Services to Offenders

Key Terms

Assigning Offenders to Officers

Supervision Strategies

Brokerage Supervision

Casework Supervision

Case Planning

Brokerage Officers: Contracting for Services

Caseworker Skills: Addressing Criminogenic Needs

Improving Community Supervision

Use of Volunteers

Scope of Services

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Reading

References

Chapter 9 Graduated Responses to Behavior

Key Terms

When Probation Is Not Enough

Intermediate Sanctions

Intensive Supervision

Issues in Intensive Supervision

Swift, Certain, and Fair Approaches

Day Reporting Centers

Home Confinement, Electronic Monitoring, and GPS Tracking

Shock Incarceration Programs

Reinforcement Systems

Response to Negative Behavior

Revocation Hearing

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 10 Community Residential Correctional Programs

Key Terms

Historical Development of the Halfway House in America

Uses of Halfway Houses

Models of Community Residential Programs

Rural Community Programs

Metropolitan Residential Programs

Juveniles in Residential Placement

Effectiveness of Community Residential Programs

The Future of Residential Community Corrections

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 11 Special Populations in Community Corrections

Key Terms

The Sex Offender

Public Opinion and Fear

Treatment for Sex Offenders

Mental Health Disorders

Driving Under the Influence

Domestic Violence Offenders

Juvenile Offenders

Adolescent Development

Diversion Programs

Aftercare and Community Corrections

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 12 Women and Community Corrections

Key Terms

Female Corrections Populations

Women in Prison

Women in Jail

Women on Parole

Women on Probation

Women in Residential Programs

Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

What Works for Females

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 13 Problem-Solving Courts

Key Terms

The Development of Drug Courts

The Emergence of the Drug Court

The War on Drugs

Public Fear of Drugs and Violence

Ineffectiveness of the Criminal Justice System to Treat Drug Offenders

The First Drug Court

Growth of Drug and Specialty Courts

The Drug Court Model

The Expansion of Drug and Problem Solving Courts

The Juvenile Drug Court

Specialty Courts for DUI Offenders

Mental Health Courts

Common Elements in Mental Health Courts

Family Drug Courts

Re-entry Courts

Veteran’s Courts

Domestic Violence Courts

Sex Offender Courts

Problem-Solving Court Effectiveness

Issues Facing Problem-Solving Courts

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 14 Evaluating Community Corrections

Key Terms

The Importance of Evaluating Community Correctional Programs

Limitations of Effectiveness Studies

Measuring Outcome and Recidivism

Review of Research

Recidivism as an Outcome Measure

Performance-Based Measures

Measuring Program Quality

Introduction to Program Assessment

The Correctional Program Checklist (CPC)

Summary

Review Questions

Recommended Readings

References

Chapter 15 The Future of Corrections in the Community

Money Bail

Convictions and Collateral Consequences

Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities

Community Corrections Footprint

Establishing a New Community Corrections System

Designed for Behavioral Change

Summary

Review Questions

References

Glossary/Index

About the Authors

Edward J. Latessa isProfessor and Director of the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. He received his PhD from Ohio State University in 1979 and was a student of Harry E. Allen. Dr. Latessa has published over 170 works in the area of criminal justice, corrections, and juvenile justice. He is co-author of eight books, including What Works (and Doesn’t) in Reducing Recidivism, Corrections in the Community, and Corrections in America. He has directed more than 195 funded research projects, including studies of day reporting centers, juvenile justice programs, drug courts, prison programs, intensive supervision programs, halfway houses, and drug programs. Latessa and his staff have also assessed over 1,000 correctional programs throughout the United States, and he has provided assistance and workshops in 48 states. Latessa served as President of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (1989-90). He has also received several awards including the Ernest Talbert House Award (2018); the Lifetime Achievement Award from Rite of Passage (2018); the William T. Rossiter Award from the Forensic Mental Health Association of California (2017); the Marguerite Q. Warren and Ted B. Palmer Differential Intervention Awardpresented by the Division of Corrections and Sentencing of the American Society of Criminology (2010); the Outstanding Community Partner Award from the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections (2010); the Maud Booth Correctional Services Award in recognition of dedicated service and leadership presented by the Volunteers of America (2010); the Community Hero Award presented by Community Resources for Justice (2010); the Bruce Smith Sr. Award for outstanding contributions to criminal justice by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (2010); the George Beto Scholar, College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University (2009); the Mark O. Hatfield Scholar Award for contributions in public policy research by the Hatfield School of Government at Portland State University (2008); the Outstanding Achievement Award by the National Juvenile Justice Court Services Association (2007); the August Vollmer Award from the American Society of Criminology (2004); the Simon Dinitz Criminal Justice Research Award from the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (2002); the Margaret Mead Award for dedicated service to the causes of social justice and humanitarian advancement by the International Community Corrections Association (2001); the Peter P. Lejins Research Award from the American Correctional Association (1999); the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS) Fellow Award (1998); the ACJS Founders Award (1992); and the Dr. Simon Dinitz award by the Ohio Community Corrections Organization (now The Ohio Justice Alliance for Community Corrections). In 2013 Latessa was identified as one of the most innovative people in criminal justice by a national survey conducted by the Center for Court Innovation in partnership with the Bureau of Justice Assistance and the U.S. Department of Justice.

Brian Lovins is a Research Fellow for the University of Cincinnati’s School of Criminal Justice as well as the Assistant Director for Harris County Community Supervision and Corrections Department. He earned his PhD in Criminology from the University of Cincinnati, School of Criminal Justice. Dr. Lovins has published over 20 peer reviewed articles and book chapters in the area of corrections, risk assessment, and juvenile justice. In addition to his work in Harris County, he is currently the Co-Editor for the American Probation and Parole Association’s (APPA) Perspectives journal. He has contributed to the national discourse with his work in developing a non-proprietary juvenile risk assessment (Ohio Youth Assessment System: OYAS) and adult risk assessment (Ohio Risk Assessment System: ORAS), as well as redesigning juvenile and adult correctional programs to meet evidence-based standards. Lovins routinely assists community corrections agencies in developing and implementing risk assessment and the delivery of cognitive-behavioral interventions. Lovins has received the Dr. Simon Dinitz Award from The Ohio Justice Alliance for Community Corrections for his work and dedication in helping correctional agencies adopt evidence-based programs, as well as the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Cincinnati.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOC030000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Penology