Counter Electrode for Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells
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This book converses the various aspects of materials for the fabrication of counter electrodes, especially for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) which are believed to be the most promising in the third-generation solar photovoltaics (PVs).
The optimization of a DSSC is focused on four main components: (i) metal oxide semiconductor, (ii) photosensitizer, (iii) redox couple electrolyte, and (iv) counter electrode. Among these, the counter electrode undertakes three functions: (i) as a catalyst, (ii) as a positive electrode of primary cells, and (iii) as a mirror. To obey these functions, the electrode material should have high catalytic activity, high conductivity, high reflectivity, high surface area, and electrochemical and mechanical stability. To improve the performance of DSSCs, many scientists have developed new counter electrodes made of platinum, carbon materials, transition metals, conductive polymers, and composites.
Renewable energies have become an attractive option to overcome the energy demands in sustainable and affordable ways. Of the various renewable energies, one-third of the energy generation would be from PVs.
Table of Contents
1. Functions of Counter Electrode and Its Characterizations 2. Metal Oxides as Counter Electrode Materials
3. Transition Metal Carbides as Counter Electrode Materials 4. Transition Metal Nitrides as Counter Electrode Materials 5. Transition Metal Sulphides as Counter Electrode Materials 6. Chalcogenides as Counter Electrode Materials 7. Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites as Counter Electrode Materials 8. Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites as Counter Electrode Materials 9. Quantum Dots as Counter Electrode Materials
Alagarsamy Pandikumar is a scientist in the Organic and Materials Electrochemistry Division of the CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. He obtained his PhD in chemistry (2014) from the Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India. He successfully completed his postdoctoral fellowship (2014–2016) from the University of Malaya, Malaysia, under its High Impact Research grant. He then joined the Functional Materials Division of the CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute as a scientist. His current research involves development of novel materials with graphene and graphitic carbon nitride, in combination with metals, metal oxides, polymers, and carbon nanotubes, for photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, and electrochemical sensor applications.
Kandasamy Jothivnekatachalam is head and a professor at the Department of Chemistry, Anna University, BIT campus, Tiruchirappalli, India. He obtained his PhD in chemistry from the University of Madras, Chennai, India. His current research focuses on photocatalysis for energy and environmental applications and his other research interests are functional materials, photocatalysis, photoelectrochemistry, photoelectrocatalysis, and dye-sensitized solar cells.