1st Edition

Countering Terrorist and Criminal Financing Theory and Practice

    702 Pages 15 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    702 Pages 15 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Countering Terrorist and Criminal Financing provides an up-to-date overview and critical analysis of terrorism financing, focusing on tactics and practical measures directed at preventing money laundering and countering the flow of terrorism funding. In doing so, the book details some of the major doctrines, outlining policies of states and key regional and global partnerships in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, the Middle East, and Africa.

    Chapters bring together a diverse range of expert scholars and practitioners who specialise in theoretical principles, utilising empirical research and an analysis of the cross-national networks and cross-group collaborations that underpin the illicit activities that fund such groups. The book serves as the most current and comprehensive resource in the area of countering the financing of terrorism and organised crime—incorporating regional and group-specific approaches, challenges, and consequences. This focus encompasses legal measures, social policies, and military operations and security force responses by states and non-state actors to assemble the most up-to-date counter-terrorist financing information into a single volume.

    Introduction: Challenges and Opportunities in Countering Terrorist Financing

    Amparo Pamela H Fabe, Scott N Romaniuk, and Christian Kaunert

    PART I – Critical Issues in Countering Terrorist and Criminal Financing

    1. Actors and Agents Countering Terrorist and Criminal Financing: A Critical Assessment

    Scott N Romaniu and Atrayee Saha

    2. Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Terrorist Financing from an IR, Criminology, and Compliance Perspective: A Theoretical Marriage of Convenience

    Maria Nizzero

    3. The FATF Recommendations and the Development of International Standards on Terrorist Financing

    Fabrizio Costantino

    4. Civil Society Organisations and the Framing of United Nations Counter-Terrorism Financing Regulations

    Joshua Oreoluwa Akintayo, Emeka Thaddues Njoku, and Scott N Romaniuk

    5. Revisiting a Marriage of Convenience: Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism

    Tracey Durner and Danielle Cotter

    6. Banks, Bucks, and Bombs: Financial Institutions' Efforts to Combat Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Maria Nizzero

    7. Deadly Aid: Charities, Non-Profit Organisations, and the Financing of Terrorism

    Kingsley Emeka Ezemenaka

    8. Social Media and Terrorist Financing

    Gordon Alley-Young

    9. Social Media Intelligence to Combat Terrorist Support: Can an Orthodox Focus on Unlawful Groups Survive in the Era of QAnon, Anti-vax Conspiracy Belief, and Stop the Steal?

    Victoria H McCloud

    10. Drug Trafficking and Terrorism Financing: A Transnational Synthesis

    Fiamma Terenghi

    11. White-Collar Crime and Terrorism: Examining the Links and Challenges

    Erika Grieco

    12. Financing Terrorism through Kidnap for Ransom

    Yvonne M Dutton

    13. Human Capital: Boko Haram’s Exploitation of Women to Support and Finance its Criminal Operations

    Sarbjeet Kaur and Benjamin Thomas Greer

    14. "Destruction Does Not Make Money, But Looking Does": Illicit Antiquities, Terrorism, and the Financing of ISIS

    Nail Elhan

    15. Financing Terror: Trade in Counterfeit Products

    Gabriele Baratto

    16. The Limits of the Law and Legal Frameworks for Preventing and Countering the Flow of Terrorist Funds

    Kimeu W Boynton, Mostafa Amini, and Anwar Ouassini

    17. The Cyber Dimension of Terrorism Financing

    Mostafa Amini, Anwar Ouassini, and Nabil Ouassini

    18. New Dimensions of Terrorism Financing: Evaluating Risks, Types, and Precautions

    Filiz Katman

    PART II – State and Group Cases in Countering Terrorism Financing - North, Central, and South America

    19. Some Past Successes, Yet Many Remaining Challenges: The United States and the War on Terrorist Financing

    William A Taylor

    20. Chasing "Dirty Money": Canada’s Efforts to Disrupt Money Laundering in the Casinos, Real Estate, and Horse-Racing Sectors

    Scott N Romaniuk and Amparo Pamela Fabe

    21. Countering Terrorist Financing in the Caribbean

    Wendell C Wallace and Ayinka Nurse-Carrington

    22. Assessing Efforts to Disrupt and Manage Criminal and Terrorist Financing in South America

    Pascal Carlucci

    23. Brazil’s Commitment to Fighting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing: An Analysis of its Financial Activities Control Council and National Strategy to Fight Corruption and Money Laundering

    Victor Santos Mende and Lara Denise Góes Da Costa

    24. State Intelligence or Stash Intelligence?: Tracing Terrorism Financing in Colombia after FARC-EP Demobilisation

    César Niño and Mauricio Palma-Gutiérrez

    III: State and Group Cases in Countering Terrorism Financing – Europe

    25. EU Measures to Combat Terrorist Financing

    Oldřich Bureš

    26. Creating an EU "Homeland Security": Examining the Potential of EBCGA and EPPO Co-Operations in Countering Terrorist and Criminal Financing

    Kamila Zarychta and Maciej Szostak

    27. Creating Captain Europe: The Contribution of Academia in the Creation and Training of New European Border and Coast Guards

    Kamila Zarychta-Romanowska, Maciej Szostak, and Piotr Boćko

    28. Counter-Terrorism Financing Activities Introduced by the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

    Michał Matyasik

    29. A Wicked Problem: UK Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing MeasuresJoshua Skoczylis, Abraham Jatto, and Georgie Horner

    30. Examining the Efficacy of France’s Counter-Terrorist Financing Approaches

    Richard McNeil-Willson and Scott N Romaniuk

    31. Counter-Terrorism Financing Initiatives Utilised by the Russian Federation

    Réjeanne Lacroix

    IV: State and Group Cases in Countering Terrorism Financing - The Middle East and Africa

    32. Post-Arab Spring Counter-Terrorist Financing: An Appraisal of Policies and Protocols Used in the MENA Region

    Renny Rueda Castañeda

    33. Cutting Terrorist Monetary Flows and Money Laundering in Tunisia

    Ewa Szczepankiewicz-Rudzka

    34. Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Counter-Terrorism Financing Policy in Algeria

    Ewa Szczepankiewicz-Rudzka

    35. Morocco’s Efforts Against Terrorism Financing

    Ewa Szczepankiewicz-Rudzka

    36. Oil for Terror: The Sources of Income of the Islamic State

    Tamer Kaşıkcı

    37. Combatting the Financing of Terrorism in Saudi Arabia: Legal Reforms and Future Challenges

    Anwar Ouassini, Mostafa Amini and Nabil Ouassini

    38. Egypt’s Fight against Terrorist Funding

    Bassant Hassib and Fatimah Ayad

    39. Countering Terrorism Financing in Turkey: Opportunities and Challenges Ahead

    Filiz Katman

    40. Countering Terrorist Financing: Turkey’s Economic Battle against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

    Sertaç Canalp Korkmaz and Kaan Namli

    41. Al-Shabaab: Sources, Methods, and Countering Terrorist Financing

    Fathima Azmiya Badurdeen

    V: State and Group Cases in Countering Terrorism Financing - Asia and the Asia-Pacific Regions

    42. Fake Indian Currency Notes: Counterfeit Currency, Criminal Cartel, and Terror Financing in India and South Asia

    Animesh Roul

    43. The Roles of Central Asian States in (Anti-)Money Laundering and (Countering-)Terrorist Financing

    Yrys Abdiev and Scott N Romaniuk

    44. A Critical Assessment of Pakistani Counter-Terrorism Financing Measures

    Mariam Shah and Salman Javed

    45. Feeding the Criminal-Terror Nexus: The Role of Pakistan’s Unregulated Economy

    Debasish Nandy

    46. Bangladesh’s Counter-Terror Financing Measures - the Sheikh Hasina Regime

    Scott N Romaniuk and Md. Shariful Islam

    47. Hawala and Terror Financing in the Indian Subcontinent

    Animesh Roul

    48. Countering Terrorist Financing in Southeast Asia: The Role of ASEAN

    Aries A Arugay and Justin Keith A Baquisal

    49. Birds of a Feather Fight Terror Together: How ASEAN Countries Tackle Anti-Money Laundering and Combatting the Financing of Terrorism Challenges

    Amparo Pamela H Fabe and Scott N Romaniuk

    50. Countering Terrorist Financing in Indonesia

    Amparo Pamela Fabe and Sylvia Laksmi

    51. The Tree of Violence: Exposing the Root Dynamics of Terrorism Financing Beneath the Marawi Siege

    Joan Andrea Toledo

    52. Method to the Madness: When Terrorism Exploits Human Trafficking, Drug Smuggling, and Weapons Smuggling for Financial Purposes

    Amparo Pamela Fabe and Scott N Romaniuk

    53. Australia’s Post-9/11 Anti-Terrorism Policies and Approaches

    Amparo Pamela Fabe and Scott N Romaniuk


    Dr Scott N Romaniuk is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Security Studies at the China Institute, University of Alberta. He received his PhD in International Studies from the University of Trento, examining the effects of Hungary’s counter-terrorism and security policies on civil society organizations in the post-9/11 period. He holds an MRes in Political Research, an MA in Terrorism, Crime and Global Security, and an MA in Military Studies (Joint Warfare). His teaching and research specializations include International Relations, Military and Strategic Studies, Security Studies, Terrorism and Political Violence, and Research Methods. He is a Senior Research Affiliate with the Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society (TSAS) and a member of the Conflict, Terrorism and Development (CTD) Collaboratory at Michigan State University.

    Prof Dr Christian Kaunert is Chair of Policing and Security, as well as Director of the International Centre for Policing and Security at the University of South Wales. He is also the Leader of the Cognate Research Group on Policing and Security at the University of South Wales. Previously, he served as an Academic Director and Professor at the Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a Professor of International Politics, Head of Discipline in Politics, and the Director of the European Institute for Security and Justice, a Jean Monnet Centre for Excellence, at the University of Dundee. He was previously Senior Lecturer at the University of Dundee, Marie Curie Senior Research Fellow at the European University Institute Florence, and Senior Lecturer in EU Politics and International Relations, University of Salford. He has been awarded with a prestigious Jean Monnet Chair in EU Justice and Home Affairs Policy and EU Counter-Terrorism (2012, 2013, 2017 and 2018), and received a prestigious Marie Curie Career Integration Grant (from 2012-2016), the latter held at the University of Dundee. He is currently the Editor of the Journal of Contemporary European Studies, International Conflict and Cooperation, and the Edward Elgar Book Series ‘European Security and Justice Critiques’. Prof Kaunert holds a PhD in International Politics and an MSc in European Politics from the University of Wales Aberystwyth, a BA (Hons) European Business from Dublin City University, ESB Reutlingen and a BA (Hons) Open University.

    Amparo Pamela Fabe is a Filipino Professor of Financial Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime at the Philippine Public Safety College and the National Police College. Professor Fabe helped write Republic Act 11479, known as the Philippine’s Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020, particularly the section on penalizing the material support for terrorism. She is a Visiting Fellow at the International Center for Policing and Security at the University of South Wales, and a Fellow of the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. She completed the WayOut Certification Training for the European Union Integrated Exit Program for Prison and Probation Program of the University of Toulouse Jean-Jaureas and the Postgraduate Program in Hate Crime/Hate Speech at the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Center, Rome, Italy. Professor Fabe is the Philippine National Police Representative to the Secretariat and to the ASEAN Senior Officials’ Meeting on Transnational Crime (SOMTC). She is a Preventing/Countering Violent Extremism specialist of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Fabe is a member of the United Nations Cryptocurrencies Working Group for Southeast Asia and a member of the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime Contact Group on Sulu and Celebes Sea. Her affiliations include the American Chamber Overseas Security Advisory Council (East Asia and the Pacific), and the International Corrections and Prison Association.