Across the globe, challenging and contentious issues about community safety and security increasingly exercise governments and police forces—as well as, for example, town planners and car-park designers. Consequently, as a specialist area within the wider discipline of criminology, crime reduction has never before enjoyed such prominence in public and scholarly discourse. With research on and around the subject flourishing as never before, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Criminology, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subdiscipline’s colossal literature and the continuing explosion in research output and practice. Edited by Kate Moss, a prominent academic in the field, Crime Reduction is a four-volume collection of foundational and cutting-edge scholarship.
The first volume in the collection (‘Approaches to Reduction’) brings together the best research on the different approaches to crime reduction, including its classification and theory, and ideas of what is preventable. The work gathered here also includes criticisms of crime reduction, not least research around the phenomena of displacement and sustainability.
Volume II (‘Motivation of the Criminal Inclination’) collects the most important work on issues of crime reduction, particularly those concerned with what one thinker has described as ‘structure and psyche’. The scholarship in this volume draws both on the structural perspective (which emphasizes the view that reduction is achievable only through economic and social change, especially by ameliorating inequality or levels of social exclusion), and the ‘psyche’ approach (which regards crime principally as a product of the human spirit and seeks to change criminal inclination and activity by policies of, for example, deterrence, incapacitation, and reform).
The notion of situational crime reduction has been a particularly active area of research in recent years. But the idea that changes to the social and physical settings in which crime may occur can reduce its frequency or impact is far from uncontroversial. Volume III (‘Situational Crime Reduction’) assembles the best thinking in this area tackling, for example, ethical dilemmas about the impact of some reduction strategies on our freedom and privacy rights, as well as the difficult and profound implications that arise from the increasing extent to which crime reduction has become the de facto responsibility of private rather than state organizations.
The final volume in the collection (‘Crime Prevention in Action’) gathers together the best cutting-edge work to highlight key examples of empirical crime reduction research in action. It includes research focusing on: the need to incentivize crime reduction to persuade more people to take responsibility for reducing a greater variety of crime; the effects of apparently subtle strategies (such as changes to street lighting); and anticipatory changes (whereby crime seems to reduce in advance of reduction initiatives). Volume IV also includes assessments of the future developments in the field.
Crime Reduction is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. An essential reference collection, it is destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Approaches to Reduction
1. R. Barr and K. Pease (1990) ‘Crime Placement, Displacement and Deflection’, in M. Tonry and N. Morris (eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 12 (University of Chicago Press), pp. 277–318.
2. P. Brantingham and F. Faust (1976) ‘A Conceptual Model of Crime Prevention’, Crime and Delinquency, 22, 284–96.
3. R. V. Clarke and D. Weisburd (1994) ‘Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits: Observations on the Reverse of Displacement’, in R. V. Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 2 (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 165–83.
4. A. Crawford and M. Jones (1995) ‘Inter-agency Co-operation and Community Based Crime Prevention’, British Journal of Criminology, 35, 17–33.
5. P. Ekblom (1994) ‘Proximal Circumstances: A Mechanism Based Classification of Crime Prevention’ (Research and Planning Unit Crime Prevention Studies, Home Office), pp. 185–232.
6. M. Felson and R. V. G. Clarke (1998) ‘Opportunity Makes the Thief: Practical Theory for Crime Prevention’ (Police Research Series, Paper 98, Home Office), pp. 1–33.
7. D. Garland (2000) ‘The New Criminologies of Everyday Life’, in A. Von Hirsch et al. (eds.), Ethical and Social Issues in Situational Crime Prevention (Hart Publishing), pp. 215–24.
8. D. Gilling (1994) ‘Multi-Agency Crime Prevention in Britain: The Problem of Combining Situational and Social Strategies’, Crime Prevention Studies, 3, 231–48.
9. R. B. P. Hesseling (1994) ‘Displacement: A Review of the Empirical Literature’, in R. V. Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 3 (Willow Tree Press), pp. 197–230.
10. G. Hughes and E. McLaughlin (2002) ‘Together We’ll Crack it: Partnership and the Governance of Crime Prevention’, in C. Glendinning (ed.), Partnership, New Labour and the Governance of Welfare (Polity Press), pp. 149–66.
11. M. H. Moore (1995) ‘Public Health and Criminal Justice Approaches to Prevention’, in M. Tonry and D. P. Farrington (eds.), Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention: Building a Safer Society (University of Chicago Press), pp. 237–62.
12. K. Pease (2006) ‘Mindsets, Set Minds and Implementation’, in J. Knutsson and R. Clarke (eds.), Implementing Situational Crime Prevention and Problem-Oriented Policing (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 199–216.
13. R. J. Sampson and J. H. Laub (1993) ‘A General Age-Graded Theory of Crime: Lessons Learned and the Future of Life-Course Criminology’, in D. P. Farrington (ed.), Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 13 (Transaction Publishers), pp. 165–81.
14. R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls (1997) ‘Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy’, Science, 15, 277, 5328, 918–24.
15. R. F. Sparks (1980) ‘A Critique of Marxist Criminology’, Crime and Justice, 2, 159–210.
16. N. Tilley (2001) ‘Evaluation and Evidence-Led Crime Reduction Policy and Practice’, in R. Matthews and J. Pitts (eds.), Crime, Disorder and Community Safety (Routledge), pp. 81–97.
17. P.-O. Wikström (2005). ‘The Social Origins of Pathways in Crime: Towards a Developmental Ecological Action Theory of Crime Involvement and its Changes’, in D. P. Farrington (ed.), Integrated Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending (Transaction), pp. 211–45.
Volume II: Motivation of the Criminal Inclination
18. D. A. Andrews et al. (1990) ‘Does Correctional Treatment Work? A Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Meta-Analysis’, Criminology, 28: 369–404.
19. P. L. Brantingham and P. J. Brantingham (1995) ‘Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors’, European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 3, 5–26.
20. F. Brookman and M. Maguire (2005) ‘Reducing Homicide: A Review of the Possibilities’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 42, 4–5, 325–403.
21. R. P. Dobash et al. (1999) ‘A Research Evaluation of British Programmes for Violent Men’, Journal of Social Policy, 28, 205–33.
22. D. P. Farrington and B. J. Knight (1980) ‘Stealing from a "Lost" Letter’, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 7, 423–36.
23. M. Felson (1986) ‘Linking Criminal Choices, Routine Activities, Informal Control and Criminal Outcomes’, in D. B. Cornish and R. V. Clarke (eds.), The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending (Springer-Verlag), pp. 119–28.
24. D. Halpern (2001) ‘Moral Values, Social Trust and Inequality: Can Values Explain Crime?’, British Journal of Criminology, 41, 236–51.
25. T. W. Harachi et al. (1996) ‘Empowering Communities to Prevent Adolescent Substance Abuse: Process Evaluation Results from a Risk and Protection-Focused Community Mobilization Effort’, Journal of Primary Prevention, 16(3), 233–54.
26. J. D. Hawkins (1999) ‘Preventing Crime and Violence through Communities that Care’, European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 7: 443–58.
27. T. Hirschi (1986) ‘On the Compatibility of Rational Choice and Social Control Theories of Crime’, in D. B. Cornish and R. V. Clarke (eds.), The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending (Springer-Verlag), pp. 105–18.
28. R. Homel, R. Lincoln, and B. Herd (1999) ‘Risk and Resilience: Crime and Violence Prevention in Aboriginal Communities’, The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 32, 182–96.
29. D. M. Kennedy (1997) ‘Pulling Levers: Chronic Offenders, High Crime Settings and a Theory of Prevention’, Valparaiso University Law Review, 31, 449–84.
30. R. Loeber and D. P. Farrington (1998) ‘Never too Early, Never too Late: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders’, Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7, 7–30.
31. J. McCord (2002) ‘Counterproductive Juvenile Justice’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 35, 230–7.
32. K. Pease, S. Chenery, and C. Henshaw (1999) ‘Illegal Parking in Disabled Bays: A Means of Offender Targeting’, (Policing and Reducing Crime Briefing Note 1/99, Home Office), pp. 1–4.
33. G. Sykes and D. Matza (1957) ‘Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency’, American Sociological Review, 22, 664–70.
34. P.-O. Wikstrom and R. Loeber (2000) ‘Do Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods Cause Well-Adjusted Children to Become Adolescent Delinquents?’, Criminology, 38, 1109–42.
Volume III: Situational Crime Reduction
35. K. Bowers, S. Johnson, and A. Hirschfield (2005) ‘Closing Off Opportunities for Crime in an Evaluation of Alley-Gating’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 285–308.
36. K. Bowers, S. Johnson, and K. Pease (2004) ‘Prospective Hot-Spotting', British Journal of Criminology, 44, 641–58.
37. R. V. G. Clarke (1980) ‘Situational Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice’, British Journal of Criminology, 20, 2, 136–47.
38. L. Cohen and M. Felson (1979). ‘Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach’, American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.
39. D. B. Cornish and R. V. Clarke (2003) ‘Opportunities, Precipitators and Criminal Decisions: A Reply to Wortley’s Critique of Situational Crime Prevention’, in M. J. Smith and D. B. Cornish, Theory for Practice in Situational Crime Prevention (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 41–96.
40. P. Ekblom (1997) ‘Gearing up Against Crime: A Dynamic Framework to Help Designers Keep Up with the Adaptive Criminal in a Changing World’, International Journal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention, 2, 249–65.
41. P. Ekblom and N. Tilley (2000) ‘Going Equipped: Criminology, Situational Crime Prevention and the Resourceful Offender’, British Journal of Criminology, 40, 376–98.
42. G. Farrell and K. Pease (1993) ‘Once Bitten, Twice Bitten: Repeat Victimisation and its Implications for Crime Prevention (Crime Prevention Unit, Paper 46, Home Office), pp. 1–32.
43. M. Felson and R. V. Clarke (1997) ‘The Ethics of Situational Crime Prevention’, in G. Newman et al. (eds.), Rational Choice and Situational Crime Prevention: Theoretical Foundations (Ashgate), pp. 197–218.
44. L. Gamman and T. Pascoe (2004) ‘Seeing is Believing: Notes Towards a Visual Methodology and Manifesto for Crime Prevention through Environmental Design’, Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6, 9–18.
45. M. Innes (2004) ‘Signal Crimes and Signal Disorders: Notes on Deviance as Communicative Action’, British Journal of Sociology, 55, 3, 335–55.
46. O. Newman (1995) ‘Defensible Space: A New Physical Planning Tool for Urban Revitalisation’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 61, 149–55.
47. K. Pease (2006) ‘No Through Road: Closing Pathways to Crime’, in K. Moss and M. Stephens (eds.), Crime Reduction and the Law (Routledge), pp. 50–66.
48. P.-O. Wikström (2004) ‘Crime as Alternative: Towards a Cross-level Situational Action Theory of Crime Causation’, in J. McCord (ed.), Beyond Empiricism: Institutions and Intentions in the Study of Crime (Transaction), pp. 1–37.
49. J. Q. Wilson and G. Kelling ‘Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety’, Atlantic Monthly, 1982, 29–38.
Volume IV: Crime Prevention in Action
50. R. Armitage (2000) ‘An Evaluation of Secured-by-Design Housing in West Yorkshire’ (Briefing Note 7/00, Home Office), pp. 1–4.
51. K. D. Bowers and S. J. Johnson (2004) ‘Domestic Burglary Repeats and Space-Time Clusters: The Dimensions of Risk’, European Journal of Criminology, 2, 67–92.
52. R. V. Clarke and P. Mayhew (1988) ‘The British Gas Suicide Story and its Criminological Implications’, Crime and Justice, 10, 79–116.
53. J. E. Eck and W. Spelman (1987) ‘Who Ya Gonna Call? The Police as Problem-Busters’, Crime and Delinquency, 33, 1, 31–52.
54. J. E. Eck, R. V. Clarke, and R. T. Guerette (2007) ‘Risky Facilities: Crime Concentration in Homogeneous Sets of Establishments and Facilities’, in G. Farrell et al. (eds.), Imagination for Crime Prevention: Essays in Honour of Ken Pease (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 225–64.
55. P. Ekblom (2005) ‘How to Police the Future’, in M. Smith and N. Tilley (eds.), Crime Science (Willan Publishing), pp. 27–55.
56. H. Goldstein (1979) ‘Improving Policing: A Problem Oriented Approach’, Crime and Delinquency, Apr. 1979, 236–43.
57. G. Laycock (1991) ‘Operation Identification or the Power of Publicity?’, Security Journal, 2, 67–71.
58. M. Levi, J. Morgan, and J. Burrows (2003) ‘Enhancing Business Crime Reduction: UK Directors’ Responsibilities to Review the Impact of Crime on Business’, Security Journal, 16, 4, 7–28.
59. M. Levi and B. Gilmore (2002) ‘Terrorist Finance, Money Laundering and the Rise and Rise of Mutual Evaluation: A New Paradigm for Crime Control?’, European Journal of Law Reform, 4, 2, 337–64.
60. E. McLaughlin (2002) ‘The Crisis of the Social and the Political Materialisation of Community Safety’, in G. Hughes, E. McLaughlin, and J. Muncie (eds.), Crime Prevention and Community Safety: New Directions (Sage), pp. 77–100.
61. K. Moss (2006) ‘Crime Prevention as Law: Rhetoric or Reality?’, in K. Moss and M. Stephens (eds.), Crime Reduction and the Law (Routledge), pp. 1–13.
62. K. Moss and K. Pease (2004) ‘Data Sharing in Crime Prevention: Why and How?’, International Journal of Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 6, 1, 7–12.
63. K. Pease (1999) ‘A Review of Street Lighting Evaluations: Crime Reduction Effects’, in K. Painter and N. Tilley (eds.), Surveillance of Public Space: CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 47–76.
64. K. Pease (1991) ‘The Kirkholt Project: Preventing Burglary on a British Public Housing Estate’, Security Journal, 2, 2, 73–7.
65. J. Sallybanks (2000) ‘Assessing the Police Use of Decoy Vehicles’ (Police Research Series 137, Home Office), pp. 1–39.
66. M. Smith, R. V. Clarke, and K. Pease (2002) ‘Anticipatory Benefits in Crime Prevention’, in N. Tilley (ed.), Analysis for Crime Prevention (Criminal Justice Press), pp. 71–88.
67. B. Stanko (2007) ‘From Academia to Policy Making: Changing Police Responses to Violence against Women’, Theoretical Criminology, 11, 2, 209–19.
68. M. Townsley and K. Pease (2003) ‘Two Go Wild in Knowsley: Analysis for Evidence-Led Crime Reduction’, in K. Bullock and N. Tilley (eds.), Crime Reduction and Problem-Oriented Policing (Willan Publishing), pp. 20–37.
69. M. Townsley and K. Pease (2002) ‘How Efficiently Can We Target Prolific Offenders?’, International Journal of Police Science and Management, 4, 4, 323–31.