This book examines the extent to which criminal desistance – 'the change process involved in the ending of criminal behaviour' – is affected by personal and social circumstances which are place specific. Grounded in criminological spatial analysis, as well as more general social scientific investigations of the role of space and place in contemporary social, economic and cultural life, it examines why large numbers of prisoners in the United States and the United Kingdom appear to be drawn from – and after release return to – certain urban neighbourhoods.
In doing so Criminal Behaviour in Context assesses the effect of this unique life course experience on the pathways and choices open to ex-prisoners who attempt to give up crime. Including new data on the geographical distribution of offenders, interviews with serving prisoners, and drawing on theories about social context, identity and subjectivity, it discusses the implications of the evidence and arguments presented for prisoner reintegration policy and practice.
Part I: Introduction 1. Local life in the global economy 2. Space, place and criminality 3. The spatial dimensions of criminal desistance 4. The structure of the book Part II: Criminal Desistance in Context 5. Introduction 6. From margins to mainstream 7. Untangling personal and social factors 8. The role of place and community 9. Assessing local circumstances Part III: From A to B and Back Again: The Revolving Door Between Place of Residence and Imprisonment 10. Introduction 11. 'We know who you are and we know where you live' Offender Residence in the Contemporary City: the Case of Greater London Cosmopolitan Boundaries and Neighbourhood Relations Part IV: Place, the Community and the Offender 12. Introduction 13. Free Will Versus Determinism: Explaining Divergent Theories of Crime and Place 14. The Concept of Community 15. Place, Rationality, Behaviour 16. Social Disorganization 17. Institutional Malfunction 18. Structural Inequality and Racial Segregation 19. Culture and Dependency 20. Neither One Thing Nor the Other: the Criminal and the Community 21. Area-based Social Rehabilitation 22. Ordering Devices and Prevention Techniques 23. Morals and Responsibilities 24. Fortress Cities and Warehouse Prisons 25. Conclusion Part V: The Hidden Limitations and Possibilities of Everyday Life 26. Introduction 27. Social Practice 28. Cultural Dispositions 29. Consumption 30. Boredom and Desire 31. Everyday Life in Prison 32. Reform and Rehabilitation 33. Social Work 34. Social Capital Part VI: 'On the up' - Pre-prison Experiences 35. Introduction 36. The Family Home 37. Neighbourhood 38. 'More like high jinks than crime': the Importance of Being Violent 39. 'What you need': Leaving home Part VII: 'On the In' - the Impact of Imprisonment 40. Introduction 41. First-timers 42. 'Pals from road were there': Gangs and Landings 43. Places of De-communication 44. Drugs and Crime 45. Prison as Home 46. 'A law abiding and useful life' Part VIII: 'On the out' - After prison Experiences 47. Introduction 48. Returning Home 49. Somewhere to Live 50. On the Corner 51. Friends (dis)reunited 52. 'Placenessess' 53. 'Social services' 54. Finding a Job Part IX: Implications 55. Introduction 56. Prisoner Reintergrayion: Recent Policy and Practice 57. Relationships 58. Area-based Initiatives and Social Exclusion 59. Partnership Working and Information Sharing 60. Constraints and Capabilities Appendix: A note on the Methodology References Index
In recent years there has been a dramatic growth in the attention given to the end of the criminal career. Prior to the 1980s, research on why people stopped offending and the processes associated with ‘leaving crime behind’ was a small and embryonic field of research. The literature on reform following a period of offending was patchy and did not constitute in any way, shape or form a body of knowledge which could be considered as ‘key’ to the criminological enterprise. This situation has now changed. The study of desistance in particular has now become an important aspect of the criminological enterprise with several UK and European research studies now focussing on this topic. Further afield (in the US and Australia for example, but certainly not limited to these
countries) there are also a number of scholars who are exploring desistance (and by association rehabilitation and reform) and the processes by which these occur amongst particular communities and for key groups of offenders. This is domain of research is therefore fertile ground for the production of a series of monographs.