This book estimates the proceeds of crime and mafia revenues for different criminal markets such as sexual exploitation, drugs, illicit cigarettes, loan sharking, extortion racketeering, counterfeiting, illicit firearms, illegal gambling and illicit waste management. It is the first time that scholars have adopted detailed methodologies to ensure the highest reliability and validity of the estimation. Overall, estimated proceeds of crime amount to € 22.8 billion: 1.5% of the Italian GDP. Of this, up to € 10.7 billion (0.7 of the GDP) may be attributable to the Italian mafias. These figures are considerably lower than the ones most frequently circulated on the news, without any details about their methodology, which were defined by a UN study as "gross overestimates". Far from underestimating criminal revenues, the results of this study bring the issue of the proceeds of crime to an empirically-based debate, providing support for improved future estimates and more effective policies.
The volume’s contributions were inspired by a project awarded by the Italian Ministry of Interior to Transcrime, which produced the first report on mafia investments (www.investimentioc.it).
This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.
Table of Contents
1. Organised crime numbers Ernesto Savona 2. Estimating the revenues of sexual exploitation: applying a new methodology to the Italian context Marina Mancuso 3. The retail value of the illicit drug market in Italy: a consumption-based approach Luca Giommoni 4. A new method for estimating the illicit cigarette market at the subnational level and its application to Italy Francesco Calderoni 5. Estimating the size of the loan sharking market in Italy Attilio Scaglione 6. Proceeds from extortions: the case of Italian organised crime groups Maurizio Lisciandra 7. Counterfeiting, illegal firearms, gambling and waste management: an exploratory estimation of four criminal markets Francesco Calderoni, Serena Favarin, Lorella Garofalo and Federica Sarno 8. Mythical numbers and the proceeds of organised crime: estimating mafia proceeds in Italy Francesco Calderoni
Ernesto U. Savona is Director of Transcrime, the Joint Research Centre on Transnational Organized Crime of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and University of Trento, Italy. He has worked at the US National Institute of Justice and was also President of the European Society of Criminology (2003) and Chair of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council of Organized Crime (2011). He works on organized and economic crime with attention to opportunities created for these crimes by regulation (crime proofing).
Francesco Calderoni has been Assistant Professor at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Researcher at Transcrime, Italy since 2005. He has been an expert for the Council of Europe (2006-2007), the European Commission (2006), and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2012 and 2014). His research focuses on the mafias and organized crime, organized crime policies, illicit trade in tobacco products and network analysis of crime.