Crisis Management and Emergency Planning: Preparing for Today's Challenges, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Crisis Management and Emergency Planning

Preparing for Today's Challenges, 1st Edition

By Michael J. Fagel

CRC Press

550 pages | 72 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-12-04
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Emergency managers and officials have seen a tremendous increase in the planning responsibilities placed on their shoulders over the last decade. Crisis Management and Emergency Planning: Preparing for Today's Challenges supplies time-testedinsights to helpcommunities and organizations become better prepared to cope with natural and manmade disasters and their impacts on the areas they serve.

Author and editor Michael J. Fagel, PhD, CEM has more than three decades of experience in emergency management and emergency operations. He has been an on-site responder to such disaster events as the Oklahoma City Bombing and the site of the World Trade Center in the aftermath of 9/11. He is an experienced professor, trainer, professional, and consultant and has pretty much seen it all.

The book delves into this experience to present advanced emergency management and response concepts to disasters not often covered in other publications. It includes coverage of planning and preparedness, public health considerations, vulnerability and impact assessments, hospital management and planning, sporting venue emergency planning, and community preparedness including volunteer management.

Contributions from leading professionals in the field focus on broad responses across the spectrum of public health, emergency management, and mass casualty situations. The book provides detailed, must-read planning and response instruction on a variety of events, identifying long-term solutions for situations where a community or organization must operate outside its normal daily operational windows.

This book has been selected as the 2014 ASIS Book of the Year.


Dozens of emergency management experts collaborated with author Michael Fagel to create this detailed volume on designing, populating, and implementing a crisis management plan that is based on hard-earned knowledge gleaned from incidents such as the 9-11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, Superstorm Sandy, and the SARS pandemic. … this excellent book, filled with information and guidance, is a valuable reference for those in the business of crisis management and will be invaluable to emergency planning professionals.

ASIS Dynamics, March/April 2015

A true professional, Mike Fagel arrived at FDNY WTC Incident Command Post on Duane Street, a short distance from Ground Zero, as chaos was still not contained. He organized, directed, and cajoled until order again appeared in our health and safety efforts for the thousands of personnel struggling at rescuing and recovering the victims of 9/11.

Charles R. Blaich, Deputy Chief of Department, FDNY (Ret.), Colonel, USMC (Ret.)

… state-of-the-art strategies and procedures useful for identifying potential or actual hazards, preparing for such hazards, mitigating the cascading system failures during an incident, and facilitating a community’s bouncing back economically and culturally from disasters. … this book is essential for anyone focused on the art and science of community resiliency and the whole of community emergency management approach—focused on saving communities—the primary role of an emergency manager.

J. Howard Murphy, MBA, MSS, FAcEM, CEM, Senior Homeland Security Program Manager and Former Commander of the U.S. Army’s first CBRNE Incident Response Force

… a must-read for emergency managers, planners, first-line responders plus faculty and students involved in the study of emergency response, homeland security, and public health. Mike Fagel has a rare combination of both superb academic and hands-on, first-responder credentials.

Colonel Randall J. Larsen, USAF (Ret.),Director, Institute for Homeland Security

Mike Fagel demonstrates in his third textbook his on-the-job expertise as an emergency manager; as someone who has known Mike for many years, I highly recommend his approach and his concepts. He continues to pursue the professional development of the field of emergency management and this is demonstrated in his most recent work. Dr. Fagel is committed to using his real world "on-the-job" approach to making the rest of us safer.

Edward Plaugher, Fire Chief (Ret.), Arlington County Fire Department, Arlington, Virginia

If you have ever had an emergency management situation, Mike’s classroom teachings and publications are a must for your agency. Mike’s real-world experience, most recently involving many events we see in the news and his willingness to educate our first responders, is an opportunity that should be utilized by all agencies.

Patrick B. Perez, Kane County Sheriff

This book complements earlier treatments of EOC design and operations by Dr. Fagel, and offers the practitioner new confidence- building measures for confronting a range of public health, agroterrorism, and active shooter incidents that can impact a community and shake the confidence of the populace to return to normalcy. His focus on the best use of social media and other communication modalities is timely and important in shaping contemporary planning and community resilience. Maintaining the trust and confidence of the element of effective emergency management and this book is a toolkit for best practices in citizen-centric preparedness.

Robert J. Coullahan, CEM, CPP, CBCP, President, Readiness Resource Group

Dr. Fagel has experience in both traditional emergency management and agriculture operations that provide a unique understanding required for successful crisis management and emergency planning.

Jeff M. Witte, Director/Secretary, New Mexico Department of Agriculture

Dr. Michael Fagel has assembled a group of experts in a variety of areas of emergency management and has edited a highly usable book that belongs on the desks of EM professionals. … The organization of Fagel’s book around hazard-specific issues makes it easy to find useful guidance when planning for a wide range of critical incidents … . The coverage is very up to date, as evidenced by references in 2013 and coverage of such modern topics as the impact of social media on emergency management. … In conclusion … a book that is easy to recommend.

Frank K. Cartledge, Alumni Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Louisiana State University

… Dr. Fagel has meticulously detailed all the important aspects associated with preventing, responding, and recovering from an attack on agribusiness and the food supply. Mike introduces the subject by showing the immense scope and size of the number-one industry in the United States, agriculture, and the allied industries of food production. He outlines the complexity of the farm-to-table continuum making a special effort to point out where security should be improved.

Stan W. Casteel, DVM, PhD,Professor of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine

Dr. Fagel and his colleagues offer a must-read, crucial body of knowledge for any professional involved in disaster management; from incident commanders to first responders in the field.

—Kimble L. Richardson, MS, LMHC , LCSW, LMFT, LCAC

These chapters provide evidence-based guidelines in terms of funding, disaster planning, and business continuity for hospitals in preparing for an all-hazards event. Given recent natural and man-made catastrophic events in our country, there could be no better time for hospitals to focus on their individual and collective emergency preparedness and response. Facts and questions are posed in a way to give hospitals a pause for thought of a serious and planned approach to evolving their emergency response beyond the typical internal situations.

—Sheila Mishler, MSN, RN, PMHCN S-BC

Table of Contents

Policy and Laws Relating to Emergency Management Planning; Michael J. Fagel, Stephen Krill , and Matthew Lawrence


Authorities and Directives

Robert T. Stafford Act

Presidential Decision Directives

Homeland Security Act of 2002

Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act

Homeland Security Presidential Directives

Other References

Presidential Policy Directives

The Shift from Target Capabilities to Core Capabilities

Federal Disaster Assistance Nonprofit Fairness Act of 2013

Response Plans

Federal Response Plan

National Response Plan

National Response Framework

Emergency Support Functions

ESF Support Agencies



Emergency Operations Center Readiness Continuum; Derek Rowan


The Training and Exercise Plan

Instructor-Led Classroom Training

Online Independent Study Training

Online Instructor-Led Distance Learning Training

Online Facilitator-Led Discussion-Based Exercises

In-Person Exercises

Creating the Continuum



Stress Management and Responders;Kathryn R. Juzwin

Why Stress Management is Important to Emergency Managers?

Stress-Related Disorders

Understanding Stress along the Continuum

Stress Reactions

Acute Stress

Manager’s Responsibilities in a Critical Event

Planning: Helping Take Care of Your Responders in Advance

Suggestions for Supporting Your Responders

Psychological First Aid

Critical Incident Stress Management

Briefing and Debriefing

Suggestions and Considerations



Facility Vulnerability and Security;Larry Cunningham

The Key to Effective Security Surveys: Accounting for Human Factors

The Elements of an Effective Security Survey


Organizational Structure Dysfunction

Immediate Response to Active Shooter Situations;Rick Mathews


Reducing the Casualties from Active Shooter Attacks

Immediate Response to Active Shooters

Training and Exercises




Coordinated Terrorist Attacks and the Public Health System; Raymond McPartland and Michael Fagel


Case Study

Mumbai, India November 26–29, 2008

The City of Mumbai

Preassault Preparations

Water Incursion and Landing



The Leopold Café and Bar

The CST Attack

The Taj Mahal Hotel

The Trident-Oberoi Hotel

Taxi Explosion

The Nariman House

Taxi Explosion


Swarm Attack Characteristics

Terror Medicine

The Macro Level: Public Health System Issues When Facing a Coordinated Attack

The Micro Level: Untraditional Response Protocols



Emergency Management, Public Health, and Private Sector Healthcare: New Opportunities for Collaboration; Ruth Cover


Histories of the Programs, Including Funding




The Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006, Public Law 109–417

Healthcare Coalitions, Medical Surge Capacity and Capability

Moving toward Health Preparedness Grant Alignment

Current PHEP and HPP Program Collaboration Requirements

Collaborative Opportunities



Hospital Management and Disaster Planning; Robert Muller


Hospital Inspection and Analysis

The Joint Commission

Mitigation, Preparation, and Planning

Types of Disaster for Planning Purposes

Hospital Preparation


Personnel Pool

Staff Education and Training


Antenna Systems

Command Structure

Emergency Operations Center


Go Kits for the PIO

Decontamination Team

Facility Management


Food Preparation

Hospital Identification System

Par Values



Surge Capacity


Communications Sheet


Hospital Business Continuity; Linda Reissman and Jacob Neufeld

Historical Prospective

Early Hospital Preparedness

Why Business Continuity?

What Is the Business Impact Analysis?

Business Impact Analysis

Physical Risk Assessment Process

Advantages of Using a Business Continuity Planning Tool

Level 1—Self-Governed

Level 2—Supported Self-Governed

Level 3—Centrally Governed

Level 4—Enterprise Awakening

Level 5—Planned Growth

Level 6—Synergistic

Key Continuity Definitions

Communications and Mass Casualty Events; Jeremia h W. Dunlap


A Historical Look

A Failure to Communicate

The Tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute

The Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

Hurricane Katrina

Improving on the Past: A Retrospective

Current Event: Hurricane Sandy

Emergency Communications 101

A Local Matter

Building a Communications Network

Communication Devices and Platforms




Emergency Management and the Media;Randall Duncan






Social Network Sites and the World Wide Web

Dealing with the Media in a Crisis

Public Information Officer

Joint Information System/Joint Information Center


Volunteer Management; Mark Chambers


Volunteer Types

Volunteer Assessment


Legal Considerations in Threat Response Management; Ernest P. Chiodo


Legal Counsel


Federal Legal Issues

State Legal Issues

Local Legal Issues

International Legal Issues

Supplies of Prescription Drugs

Federal Legal Issues

State Legal Issues

Local Legal Issues

International Legal Issues

Hoarding of Nonprescription Drugs and Other Health Supplies

Federal Legal Issues

State Legal Issues

Local Legal Issues

Autonomy and Direction of Care

Federal Legal Issues

International Legal Issues

Qualifications of Physicians Making Public Health Decisions

Federal, State, Local, and International Legal Issues


Sport Venue Emergency Planning; Stacey Hall


Emergency Management

The Sport Venue Command Group


Emergency Response Plan

Staff Training and Exercise

Establishing a Command Center


Evacuation Planning

Communication and Information Sharing



Risk Management

Business Continuity

Appendix A: General Guidelines Checklist for Emergency Preparedness

Facility Preparedness

Documentation and Record System

Emergency Medical

Bomb Threat


Appendix B: Evacuation Plan Template for Stadiums



Relevant Plans

Command Structure/Response Organization

Preevent Planning Considerations

Potential Hazards/Scenarios


Pandemic Preparedness; Douglas Himberger

Nature of Pandemics

Health Concerns of Pandemics

Community Continuity Concerns of Pandemics

Psychosocial Concerns of Pandemics

Economic Impacts of Pandemics

Unique Preparedness Requirements of Pandemics

Pandemics at Hand—Pandemic Influenzas: Avian and Swine

Persistence and Pervasiveness of Pandemics

Temporal Requirements of Pandemic Preparedness

Pandemic Preparedness Planning

Developing a Pandemic Preparedness Plan

Training for and Exercising Pandemic Preparedness

Dynamically Replanning for Pandemic Preparedness

During and After a Pandemic

Responding to Pandemic Infection

Communicating during a Pandemic

Recovering after a Pandemic




Presidential Policy Directive 8: An Overview; Elizabeth Dawson and Jacob Dickman

PPD-8: An Introduction

PPD-8: An Overview

National Preparedness Goal: An Overview

Five Mission Areas

The 31 Core Capabilities

Common Core Capabilities: Defined

Capability Targets

Strategic National Risk Assessment

National Preparedness System

National Frameworks

Building and Sustaining Preparedness




Emergent Group Theory and Whole Community Capability-Building; Joseph Lombardo


Emergent Group Theory

Disaster Research Center Typology

Emergent Groups in the Context of National Preparedness Policy

Whole Community Approach: Opportunities and Challenges

Capabilities-Based Preparedness Policy

Building Capabilities in a Whole Community Context

Examples of Emergent Groups Filling Capability Needs

Search and Rescue


Situational Awareness/Communications

Areas for Future Study

Understand Community Perceptions of Threat and Risk

Identify and Partner with Community Leaders and Prominent Organizations

Keep Existing Volunteer Groups Engaged in Informed in Any Relevant Activity

Be Creative with Training and Exercise Opportunities

Implement Solutions Using Social Media

Foster and Support Evolution of Emergent Groups into Enduring Organizations

Build a Structure and Have a Plan for Volunteer Reception




Exercise Design and Development Challenges;Matthew Lawrence


Exercise Design

Identifying the Exercise Manager

Deciding Capabilities to Exercise

Establishing a Planning Team

Establishing Trusted Agents

Developing a Scope

Developing Goals and Objectives


Exercise Development

Establishing Planning Conferences

Recruiting SMEs

Developing the Scenario

Developing the MSEL

Validating the Events

Developing Evaluation Criteria


Operational Exercise Design; Derek Rowan



Exercise Type



Exercise Development

Revealing the Simulation





Exercises: Testing Your Plans and Capabilities in a Controlled Environment; James A. McGee


Importance of Testing Plans and Capabilities

Establishing a Foundation to Exercise Plans

Design and Development of Exercises

Identify Key Personnel to Be Involved in the Exercise Process

Exercise Conduct

Design and Develop an Exercise to Include an After Action Report

Evaluation and Improvement Planning

Active Shooter Threat


Handling Instructions


General Instructions

Exercise Structure

Exercise Objectives




Exercise Guidelines

Module 1: Warning (Credible Threat)

Key Issues


University Critical Incident Response Team

Module 2: Notification and Initial Response

Key Issues


University Critical Incident Response Team

Module 3: Continued Response/Evacuation and Recovery


Key Issues


University Critical Incident Response Team




Determining Your Impacts: Impact Assessment Teams; S. Shane Stovall


Impact Assessment Defined

Need for Impact Assessment Teams

Missions and Functions of Impact Assessment Teams

Staffing Impact Assessment Teams

Managing Impact Assessment Teams

Management by Intimidation

Absentee Managers

Management by Example

Training Impact Assessment Teams

Administrative Training

Functional Training

Drills and Exercises

Equipping an Impact Assessment Team

Personal Equipment

Administrative Team Equipment

Functional Team Equipment

Financing Impact Assessment Teams

Other Considerations for Impact Assessment Teams

Lack of Commitment/Lack of Interest

Lack of Planning/Training

Lack of Post-Disaster Critical Incident Stress Debriefing


Vulnerability Assessments; James Peerenboom, Ronald E. Fisher, and Wade Townsend


Vulnerability Assessment

Methodological Approaches to Vulnerability Assessment


Simple Rating

Risk Matrix

Risk Equation

Required Expertise

Outline of Risk Management Steps

Step 1. Identify Critical Assets and the Impacts of Their Loss

Step 2. Identify What Protects and Supports the Critical Assets

Step 3. Identify and Characterize the Threat

Step 4. Identify and Analyze Vulnerabilities

Step 5. Assess Risk and Determine Priorities for Asset Protection

Step 6. Identify Mitigation Options, Costs, and Trade-Offs


Appendix: Key Definitions and Nomenclature

Key Definitions



Critical Infrastructures and Interdependencies; James Peerenboom and Ronal d E. Fisher


Concepts and Terminology




Nuclear and Radiological Incidents; Andrew Bramnik


Section I: Background

Radiation Basics

Common Uses of Radioactive Materials

Individual Protection




Roles and Responsibilities

State and Local Agencies

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Federal Emergency Management Agency

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture

U.S. Department of Energy

Types of Incidents

Low-Level, Contained Event

Midlevel, Localized Event

Section II: Significant Events

Types of Significant Events

Nuclear Detonation

Radiological Dispersal Device

Radiological Exposure Device

Transportation Incident

Release of Material

Events at Commercial Power Reactors

Section III: Protective Actions

Protective Action Recommendations

Primary Protective Actions

Secondary Protective Actions

Ongoing Protective Actions




Agroterrorism; Michael J. Fagel and Kelly Hamilton

Agriculture as a Target: Overview of Terrorist Threat

Importance of Agriculture in the United States

A Brief History of Agricultural Bioweapons

Economic Consequences

Federal Recognition of Agroterrorism Threats

Congressional Hearings and Laws

Bioterrorism Preparedness Act

New FDA Rules on Food Processors and Importers

Registration of Food Processors

Prior Notice of Imports

Administrative Detention

Maintenance of Records

Security for Biological Agents and Toxins

Homeland Security Act

Agricultural Border Inspections

Adding Agricultural Specialists

Executive Branch Actions

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9

Federal Appropriations

Possible Pathogens in an Agroterrorist Attack

Animal Pathogens

OIE List

Select Agents List

Agent Analysis

Plant Pathogens

Countering the Threat

Deterrence and Prevention

Detection and Response

Laboratories and Research

Federal Authorities

Recovery Management




About the Author

Michael Jay Fagel, PhD, CEM, CH S-IV, has been involved in many phases of public service. His professional career spans nearly four decades in Fire, Rescue, Emergency Medical Services, Law Enforcement, Public Health, Emergency Management, as well as corporate safety and security. Since 2003, he has supported many phases of Homeland Security operations in numerous capacities.

Currently, he is an instructor at the Illinois Institute of Technology-Stuart School of Business, Masters in Public Affairs Program, as well as at Northwestern University in the Masters of Public Policy and Administration Program, delivering master level courses in biodefense, terrorism, and homeland security. He also teaches Homeland Security at Northern Illinois University, Benedictine University’s Masters in Public Health Program, as well as an instructor at Eastern Kentucky University, Safety Security Emergency Management Masters program. Also, he supported the U.S. Army’s SBCCOM at Aberdeen Proving Grounds in their WMD facility support operations for 48 months. He spent 32 months standing up the National Guard Bureau’s CERIAC Fusion Center operations. He is a senior instructor at Louisiana State University’s National Center for Bio Medical Research and training (NCBRT). He serves as an SME for the National Center for Security and Preparedness, based in Albany, supporting New York State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services. He has been involved in the training of Fusion Center and Intelligence officials in numerous training classes for DHS.

He has delivered several hundred lectures across the nation and written over 200 articles on safety and disaster planning. Also, he served the National Domestic Preparedness Office SLAG team (NDPO) at the FBI in Washington.

Fagel spent 10 years at FEMA in their Occupational Safety and Health Cadre in Washington, responding to incidents and disasters such as the Oklahoma City Bombing where he worked as a safety officer and CISD de briefer. He spent over 100 days at the World Trade Center for FDNY at Ground Zero after the 9/11 attacks.He was involved in numerous NLE efforts as well as Salt Lake City EOC operations in 2002. He has been an exercise developer and lead for several regional operations as well as for specific federal partners.

He has spent several deployments in the Middle East helping to create a national response plan and create a new FEMA-type organization. He was a delegate to the European Conference on Emergency Management held in Budapest in 2007.

Along with other assignments, Fagel is a Homeland Security Analyst at the Argonne National Laboratories engaged in the protection of critical infrastructure. He has served on numerous OSHA VPP inspection teams as an SGE, with a background in safety, security, and disaster preparedness.

Also, he is a member of the Northern Illinois Critical Incident Stress Debriefing team, the International Association of Fire Chiefs Committee on Safety and Health, and served on their Terrorism Committee. He served on the Illinois Terrorism Task Force and was the Region V President for the International Association of Emergency Managers; also, he was a Certified Emergency Manager Commissioner (CEM) for IAEM as well. He spent 28 years at North Aurora Fire as EMS Coordinator and Emergency Management Planner. Currently, he is a member of the board of trustees for the Sugar Grove (Illinois) Township Fire Protection District: he was a Sheriff’s Deputy for 10 years, and has returned to the Kane County Sheriffs office in various training and support roles.

He has published four textbooks on Emergency Planning, Emergency Operations and Food Safety Law, as well as an editor for numerous trade textbooks. He serves as a columnist for several national trade publications.

Fagel, M.J., Principles of Emergency Management: Hazard Specific Issues and Mitigation Strategies, Boston, MA, Taylor & Francis, 2011.

Fagel, M.J., Principles of Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers (EOC), Boston, Massachusetts, Taylor & Francis, 2010.

Fagel, M.J., Emergency Operations: EOC Design, Louisville, Kentuky, Chicago Spectrum Press, 2008.

Fagel, S.S., Food Safety Law, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.

He has appeared on FOX, NBC, CBS, NPR, NY1, and local media outlets.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Service Industries
LAW / Forensic Science
MEDICAL / Administration
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / International Security
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety