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Crisis Management and Emergency Planning
Preparing for Today's Challenges




ISBN 9781466555051
Published December 4, 2013 by CRC Press
550 Pages 72 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Emergency managers and officials have seen a tremendous increase in the planning responsibilities placed on their shoulders over the last decade. Crisis Management and Emergency Planning: Preparing for Today's Challenges supplies time-tested insights to help communities and organizations become better prepared to cope with natural and manmade disasters and their impacts on the areas they serve.

Author and editor Michael J. Fagel, PhD, CEM has more than three decades of experience in emergency management and emergency operations. He has been an on-site responder to such disaster events as the Oklahoma City Bombing and the site of the World Trade Center in the aftermath of 9/11. He is an experienced professor, trainer, professional, and consultant and has pretty much seen it all.

The book delves into this experience to present advanced emergency management and response concepts to disasters not often covered in other publications. It includes coverage of planning and preparedness, public health considerations, vulnerability and impact assessments, hospital management and planning, sporting venue emergency planning, and community preparedness including volunteer management.

Contributions from leading professionals in the field focus on broad responses across the spectrum of public health, emergency management, and mass casualty situations. The book provides detailed, must-read planning and response instruction on a variety of events, identifying long-term solutions for situations where a community or organization must operate outside its normal daily operational windows.

This book has been selected as the 2014 ASIS Book of the Year.

Table of Contents

Policy and Laws Relating to Emergency Management Planning; Michael J. Fagel, Stephen Krill , and Matthew Lawrence
Background
Authorities and Directives
     Robert T. Stafford Act
     Presidential Decision Directives
     Homeland Security Act of 2002
     Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act
     Homeland Security Presidential Directives
     Other References
     Presidential Policy Directives
          The Shift from Target Capabilities to Core Capabilities
     Federal Disaster Assistance Nonprofit Fairness Act of 2013
Response Plans
     Federal Response Plan
     National Response Plan
     National Response Framework
          Emergency Support Functions
          ESF Support Agencies
References

RESPONSE PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS

Emergency Operations Center Readiness Continuum; Derek Rowan
Introduction
The Training and Exercise Plan
     Instructor-Led Classroom Training
     Online Independent Study Training
          Online Instructor-Led Distance Learning Training
     Online Facilitator-Led Discussion-Based Exercises
     In-Person Exercises
     Creating the Continuum
     Benefits
Conclusion

Stress Management and Responders;
Kathryn R. Juzwin
Why Stress Management is Important to Emergency Managers?
Stress-Related Disorders
Understanding Stress along the Continuum
     Stress Reactions
     Acute Stress
Manager’s Responsibilities in a Critical Event
     Planning: Helping Take Care of Your Responders in Advance
     Suggestions for Supporting Your Responders
          Psychological First Aid
          Critical Incident Stress Management
          Briefing and Debriefing
          Suggestions and Considerations
Conclusion
References

Facility Vulnerability and Security; Larry Cunningham
The Key to Effective Security Surveys: Accounting for Human Factors
The Elements of an Effective Security Survey
     Management
          Organizational Structure Dysfunction

Immediate Response to Active Shooter Situations; Rick Mathews
Introduction
Reducing the Casualties from Active Shooter Attacks
     Immediate Response to Active Shooters
     Training and Exercises
Conclusion
References

PUBLIC HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS

Coordinated Terrorist Attacks and the Public Health System;
Raymond McPartland and Michael Fagel
Introduction
Case Study
     Mumbai, India November 26–29, 2008
          The City of Mumbai
          Preassault Preparations
          Water Incursion and Landing
          Armament
          Deployment
          The Leopold Café and Bar
          The CST Attack
          The Taj Mahal Hotel
          The Trident-Oberoi Hotel
          Taxi Explosion
          The Nariman House
          Taxi Explosion
Conclusion
Swarm Attack Characteristics
Terror Medicine
     The Macro Level: Public Health System Issues When Facing a Coordinated Attack
     The Micro Level: Untraditional Response Protocols
Conclusion
References

Emergency Management, Public Health, and Private Sector Healthcare: New Opportunities for Collaboration;
Ruth Cover
Background
Histories of the Programs, Including Funding
     HSGP 
     PHEP 
     HPP 
     The Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006, Public Law 109–417
Healthcare Coalitions, Medical Surge Capacity and Capability
Moving toward Health Preparedness Grant Alignment
Current PHEP and HPP Program Collaboration Requirements
Collaborative Opportunities
Conclusion
References

Hospital Management and Disaster Planning
; Robert Muller
Introduction
Hospital Inspection and Analysis
     The Joint Commission
     Mitigation, Preparation, and Planning
Types of Disaster for Planning Purposes
Hospital Preparation
     Staffing 
     Personnel Pool
     Staff Education and Training
     Communications
     Antenna Systems
Command Structure
     Emergency Operations Center
     PIO 
     Go Kits for the PIO
     Decontamination Team
Facility Management
     Agreements
     Food Preparation
          Hospital Identification System
     Par Values
     Parking 
     Pharmacy
     Surge Capacity
     Forensics
Communications Sheet
Bibliography

Hospital Business Continuity
; Linda Reissman and Jacob Neufeld
Historical Prospective
     Early Hospital Preparedness
Why Business Continuity?
What Is the Business Impact Analysis?
     Business Impact Analysis
Physical Risk Assessment Process
Advantages of Using a Business Continuity Planning Tool
     Level 1—Self-Governed
     Level 2—Supported Self-Governed
     Level 3—Centrally Governed
     Level 4—Enterprise Awakening
     Level 5—Planned Growth
     Level 6—Synergistic
     Key Continuity Definitions

Communications and Mass Casualty Events;
Jeremia h W. Dunlap
Introduction
A Historical Look
A Failure to Communicate
     The Tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
     The Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001
     Hurricane Katrina
Improving on the Past: A Retrospective
     Current Event: Hurricane Sandy
Emergency Communications 101
     A Local Matter
Building a Communications Network
     Communication Devices and Platforms
Obstacles
Conclusion
References

Emergency Management and the Media;
Randall Duncan
Introduction
Media 
     Newspapers
     Radio 
     Television
Social Network Sites and the World Wide Web
Dealing with the Media in a Crisis
Public Information Officer
Joint Information System/Joint Information Center
References

Volunteer Management
; Mark Chambers
Background
Volunteer Types
Volunteer Assessment
References

Legal Considerations in Threat Response Management;
Ernest P. Chiodo
Introduction
Legal Counsel
Hoarding
     Federal Legal Issues
     State Legal Issues
     Local Legal Issues
     International Legal Issues
          Supplies of Prescription Drugs
     Federal Legal Issues
     State Legal Issues
     Local Legal Issues
     International Legal Issues
     Hoarding of Nonprescription Drugs and Other Health Supplies
          Federal Legal Issues
          State Legal Issues
          Local Legal Issues
     Autonomy and Direction of Care
          Federal Legal Issues
          International Legal Issues
Qualifications of Physicians Making Public Health Decisions
     Federal, State, Local, and International Legal Issues
References

Sport Venue Emergency Planning; Stacey Hall
Introduction
Emergency Management
The Sport Venue Command Group
     Preparedness
          Emergency Response Plan
          Staff Training and Exercise
          Establishing a Command Center
          Response 
          Evacuation Planning
          Communication and Information Sharing
     Recovery
     Mitigation
          Risk Management
          Business Continuity
Appendix A: General Guidelines Checklist for Emergency Preparedness
     Facility Preparedness
Documentation and Record System
Emergency Medical
Bomb Threat
Fire
Appendix B: Evacuation Plan Template for Stadiums
     Introduction
Purpose
Relevant Plans
Command Structure/Response Organization
Preevent Planning Considerations
     Potential Hazards/Scenarios
References

Pandemic Preparedness
; Douglas Himberger
Nature of Pandemics
     Health Concerns of Pandemics
     Community Continuity Concerns of Pandemics
     Psychosocial Concerns of Pandemics
     Economic Impacts of Pandemics
Unique Preparedness Requirements of Pandemics
     Pandemics at Hand—Pandemic Influenzas: Avian and Swine
     Persistence and Pervasiveness of Pandemics
     Temporal Requirements of Pandemic Preparedness
Pandemic Preparedness Planning
     Developing a Pandemic Preparedness Plan
     Training for and Exercising Pandemic Preparedness
     Dynamically Replanning for Pandemic Preparedness
During and After a Pandemic
     Responding to Pandemic Infection
     Communicating during a Pandemic
     Recovering after a Pandemic
Summary
References

WHOLE COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS

Presidential Policy Directive 8: An Overview; Elizabeth Dawson and Jacob Dickman
PPD-8: An Introduction
PPD-8: An Overview
National Preparedness Goal: An Overview
     Five Mission Areas
The 31 Core Capabilities
     Common Core Capabilities: Defined
     Capability Targets
Strategic National Risk Assessment
National Preparedness System
National Frameworks
Building and Sustaining Preparedness
Limitations
Summary
References

Emergent Group Theory and Whole Community Capability-Building;
Joseph Lombardo
Introduction
Emergent Group Theory
Disaster Research Center Typology
Emergent Groups in the Context of National Preparedness Policy
     Whole Community Approach: Opportunities and Challenges
     Capabilities-Based Preparedness Policy
     Building Capabilities in a Whole Community Context
Examples of Emergent Groups Filling Capability Needs
     Search and Rescue
     Logistics
     Situational Awareness/Communications
     Areas for Future Study
Understand Community Perceptions of Threat and Risk
     Identify and Partner with Community Leaders and Prominent Organizations
     Keep Existing Volunteer Groups Engaged in Informed in Any Relevant Activity
     Be Creative with Training and Exercise Opportunities
     Implement Solutions Using Social Media
     Foster and Support Evolution of Emergent Groups into Enduring Organizations
     Build a Structure and Have a Plan for Volunteer Reception
Conclusion
References

EXERCISE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

Exercise Design and Development Challenges;
Matthew Lawrence
Introduction
Exercise Design
     Identifying the Exercise Manager
     Deciding Capabilities to Exercise
     Establishing a Planning Team
     Establishing Trusted Agents
     Developing a Scope
     Developing Goals and Objectives
     Summary
Exercise Development
     Establishing Planning Conferences
     Recruiting SMEs
     Developing the Scenario
     Developing the MSEL
     Validating the Events
     Developing Evaluation Criteria
     Summary

Operational Exercise Design;
Derek Rowan
Introduction
Scope
Exercise Type
Objectives
Scenario
Exercise Development
Revealing the Simulation
Evaluation
Conduct
Training
Documentation

Exercises: Testing Your Plans and Capabilities in a Controlled Environment;
James A. McGee
Introduction
Importance of Testing Plans and Capabilities
     Establishing a Foundation to Exercise Plans
Design and Development of Exercises
Identify Key Personnel to Be Involved in the Exercise Process
     Exercise Conduct
Design and Develop an Exercise to Include an After Action Report
     Evaluation and Improvement Planning
Active Shooter Threat
     Preface 
     Handling Instructions
     Introduction
     General Instructions
     Exercise Structure
     Exercise Objectives
     Purpose 
     Scope 
     Participants
     Exercise Guidelines
     Module 1: Warning (Credible Threat)
          Key Issues
          Questions
          University Critical Incident Response Team
     Module 2: Notification and Initial Response
          Key Issues
          Questions
          University Critical Incident Response Team
     Module 3: Continued Response/Evacuation and Recovery
          Recovery/Remediation
          Key Issues
          Questions
          University Critical Incident Response Team
Acronyms
References

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Determining Your Impacts: Impact Assessment Teams
; S. Shane Stovall
Introduction
Impact Assessment Defined
Need for Impact Assessment Teams
     Missions and Functions of Impact Assessment Teams
     Staffing Impact Assessment Teams
     Managing Impact Assessment Teams
          Management by Intimidation
          Absentee Managers
          Management by Example
     Training Impact Assessment Teams
          Administrative Training
          Functional Training
     Drills and Exercises
     Equipping an Impact Assessment Team
     Personal Equipment
     Administrative Team Equipment
     Functional Team Equipment
          Financing Impact Assessment Teams
Other Considerations for Impact Assessment Teams
     Lack of Commitment/Lack of Interest
     Lack of Planning/Training
     Lack of Post-Disaster Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
Summary

Vulnerability Assessments; James Peerenboom, Ronald E. Fisher, and Wade Townsend
Introduction
Vulnerability Assessment
Methodological Approaches to Vulnerability Assessment
     Checklist
     Simple Rating
     Risk Matrix
     Risk Equation
     Required Expertise
     Outline of Risk Management Steps
          Step 1. Identify Critical Assets and the Impacts of Their Loss
          Step 2. Identify What Protects and Supports the Critical Assets
          Step 3. Identify and Characterize the Threat
          Step 4. Identify and Analyze Vulnerabilities
          Step 5. Assess Risk and Determine Priorities for Asset Protection
          Step 6. Identify Mitigation Options, Costs, and Trade-Offs
Conclusion
Appendix: Key Definitions and Nomenclature
     Key Definitions
Nomenclature
References

Critical Infrastructures and Interdependencies;
James Peerenboom and Ronal d E. Fisher
Introduction
Concepts and Terminology
Application
References

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Nuclear and Radiological Incidents;
Andrew Bramnik
Introduction
Section I: Background
     Radiation Basics
     Common Uses of Radioactive Materials
     Individual Protection
          Time 
          Distance 
          Shielding 
     Roles and Responsibilities
          State and Local Agencies
          U.S. Department of Homeland Security
          Federal Emergency Management Agency
          U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
          U.S. Department of Energy
     Types of Incidents
          Low-Level, Contained Event
          Midlevel, Localized Event
Section II: Significant Events
     Types of Significant Events
          Nuclear Detonation
          Radiological Dispersal Device
          Radiological Exposure Device
          Transportation Incident
          Release of Material
          Events at Commercial Power Reactors
Section III: Protective Actions
     Protective Action Recommendations
          Primary Protective Actions
          Secondary Protective Actions
          Ongoing Protective Actions
Conclusion
Abbreviations
References

Agroterrorism;
Michael J. Fagel and Kelly Hamilton
Agriculture as a Target: Overview of Terrorist Threat
Importance of Agriculture in the United States
A Brief History of Agricultural Bioweapons
Economic Consequences
Federal Recognition of Agroterrorism Threats
Congressional Hearings and Laws
Bioterrorism Preparedness Act
New FDA Rules on Food Processors and Importers
Registration of Food Processors
Prior Notice of Imports
Administrative Detention
Maintenance of Records
Security for Biological Agents and Toxins
Homeland Security Act
Agricultural Border Inspections
Adding Agricultural Specialists
Executive Branch Actions
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9
Federal Appropriations
Possible Pathogens in an Agroterrorist Attack
     Animal Pathogens
     OIE List
     Select Agents List
     Agent Analysis
     Plant Pathogens
Countering the Threat
Deterrence and Prevention
Detection and Response
Laboratories and Research
Federal Authorities
Recovery Management
Summary
References

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Michael Jay Fagel, PhD, CEM, CH S-IV, has been involved in many phases of public service. His professional career spans nearly four decades in Fire, Rescue, Emergency Medical Services, Law Enforcement, Public Health, Emergency Management, as well as corporate safety and security. Since 2003, he has supported many phases of Homeland Security operations in numerous capacities.

Currently, he is an instructor at the Illinois Institute of Technology-Stuart School of Business, Masters in Public Affairs Program, as well as at Northwestern University in the Masters of Public Policy and Administration Program, delivering master level courses in biodefense, terrorism, and homeland security. He also teaches Homeland Security at Northern Illinois University, Benedictine University’s Masters in Public Health Program, as well as an instructor at Eastern Kentucky University, Safety Security Emergency Management Masters program. Also, he supported the U.S. Army’s SBCCOM at Aberdeen Proving Grounds in their WMD facility support operations for 48 months. He spent 32 months standing up the National Guard Bureau’s CERIAC Fusion Center operations. He is a senior instructor at Louisiana State University’s National Center for Bio Medical Research and training (NCBRT). He serves as an SME for the National Center for Security and Preparedness, based in Albany, supporting New York State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services. He has been involved in the training of Fusion Center and Intelligence officials in numerous training classes for DHS.
He has delivered several hundred lectures across the nation and written over 200 articles on safety and disaster planning. Also, he served the National Domestic Preparedness Office SLAG team (NDPO) at the FBI in Washington.

Fagel spent 10 years at FEMA in their Occupational Safety and Health Cadre in Washington, responding to incidents and disasters such as the Oklahoma City Bombing where he worked as a safety officer and CISD de briefer. He spent over 100 days at the World Trade Center for FDNY at Ground Zero after the 9/11 attacks.He was involved in numerous NLE efforts as well as Salt Lake City EOC operations in 2002. He has been an exercise developer and lead for several regional operations as well as for specific federal partners.

He has spent several deployments in the Middle East helping to create a national response plan and create a new FEMA-type organization. He was a delegate to the European Conference on Emergency Management held in Budapest in 2007.

Along with other assignments, Fagel is a Homeland Security Analyst at the Argonne National Laboratories engaged in the protection of critical infrastructure. He has served on numerous OSHA VPP inspection teams as an SGE, with a background in safety, security, and disaster preparedness.

Also, he is a member of the Northern Illinois Critical Incident Stress Debriefing team, the International Association of Fire Chiefs Committee on Safety and Health, and served on their Terrorism Committee. He served on the Illinois Terrorism Task Force and was the Region V President for the International Association of Emergency Managers; also, he was a Certified Emergency Manager Commissioner (CEM) for IAEM as well. He spent 28 years at North Aurora Fire as EMS Coordinator and Emergency Management Planner. Currently, he is a member of the board of trustees for the Sugar Grove (Illinois) Township Fire Protection District: he was a Sheriff’s Deputy for 10 years, and has returned to the Kane County Sheriffs office in various training and support roles.

He has published four textbooks on Emergency Planning, Emergency Operations and Food Safety Law, as well as an editor for numerous trade textbooks. He serves as a columnist for several national trade publications.

Fagel, M.J., Principles of Emergency Management: Hazard Specific Issues and Mitigation Strategies, Boston, MA, Taylor & Francis, 2011.
Fagel, M.J., Principles of Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers (EOC), Boston, Massachusetts, Taylor & Francis, 2010.
Fagel, M.J., Emergency Operations: EOC Design, Louisville, Kentuky, Chicago Spectrum Press, 2008.
Fagel, S.S., Food Safety Law, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.

He has appeared on FOX, NBC, CBS, NPR, NY1, and local media outlets.

Reviews

Dozens of emergency management experts collaborated with author Michael Fagel to create this detailed volume on designing, populating, and implementing a crisis management plan that is based on hard-earned knowledge gleaned from incidents such as the 9-11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, Superstorm Sandy, and the SARS pandemic. ... this excellent book, filled with information and guidance, is a valuable reference for those in the business of crisis management and will be invaluable to emergency planning professionals.
ASIS Dynamics, March/April 2015

A true professional, Mike Fagel arrived at FDNY WTC Incident Command Post on Duane Street, a short distance from Ground Zero, as chaos was still not contained. He organized, directed, and cajoled until order again appeared in our health and safety efforts for the thousands of personnel struggling at rescuing and recovering the victims of 9/11.
Charles R. Blaich, Deputy Chief of Department, FDNY (Ret.), Colonel, USMC (Ret.)

... state-of-the-art strategies and procedures useful for identifying potential or actual hazards, preparing for such hazards, mitigating the cascading system failures during an incident, and facilitating a community’s bouncing back economically and culturally from disasters. ... this book is essential for anyone focused on the art and science of community resiliency and the whole of community emergency management approach—focused on saving communities—the primary role of an emergency manager.
J. Howard Murphy, MBA, MSS, FAcEM, CEM, Senior Homeland Security Program Manager and Former Commander of the U.S. Army’s first CBRNE Incident Response Force

... a must-read for emergency managers, planners, first-line responders plus faculty and students involved in the study of emergency response, homeland security, and public health. Mike Fagel has a rare combination of both superb academic and hands-on, first-responder credentials.
Colonel Randall J. Larsen, USAF (Ret.), Director, Institute for Homeland Security

Mike Fagel demonstrates in his third textbook his on-the-job expertise as an emergency manager; as someone who has known Mike for many years, I highly recommend his approach and his concepts. He continues to pursue the professional development of the field of emergency management and this is demonstrated in his most recent work. Dr. Fagel is committed to using his real world "on-the-job" approach to making the rest of us safer.
Edward Plaugher, Fire Chief (Ret.), Arlington County Fire Department, Arlington, Virginia

If you have ever had an emergency management situation, Mike’s classroom teachings and publications are a must for your agency. Mike’s real-world experience, most recently involving many events we see in the news and his willingness to educate our first responders, is an opportunity that should be utilized by all agencies.
Patrick B. Perez, Kane County Sheriff

This book complements earlier treatments of EOC design and operations by Dr. Fagel, and offers the practitioner new confidence- building measures for confronting a range of public health, agroterrorism, and active shooter incidents that can impact a community and shake the confidence of the populace to return to normalcy. His focus on the best use of social media and other communication modalities is timely and important in shaping contemporary planning and community resilience. Maintaining the trust and confidence of the element of effective emergency management and this book is a toolkit for best practices in citizen-centric preparedness.
Robert J. Coullahan, CEM, CPP, CBCP, President, Readiness Resource Group

Dr. Fagel has experience in both traditional emergency management and agriculture operations that provide a unique understanding required for successful crisis management and emergency planning.
Jeff M. Witte, Director/Secretary, New Mexico Department of Agriculture

Dr. Michael Fagel has assembled a group of experts in a variety of areas of emergency management and has edited a highly usable book that belongs on the desks of EM professionals. ... The organization of Fagel’s book around hazard-specific issues makes it easy to find useful guidance when planning for a wide range of critical incidents ... . The coverage is very up to date, as evidenced by references in 2013 and coverage of such modern topics as the impact of social media on emergency management. ... In conclusion ... a book that is easy to recommend.
Frank K. Cartledge, Alumni Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Louisiana State University

... Dr. Fagel has meticulously detailed all the important aspects associated with preventing, responding, and recovering from an attack on agribusiness and the food supply. Mike introduces the subject by showing the immense scope and size of the number-one industry in the United States, agriculture, and the allied industries of food production. He outlines the complexity of the farm-to-table continuum making a special effort to point out where security should be improved.
Stan W. Casteel, DVM, PhD, Professor of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine

Dr. Fagel and his colleagues offer a must-read, crucial body of knowledge for any professional involved in disaster management; from incident commanders to first responders in the field.
—Kimble L. Richardson, MS, LMHC , LCSW, LMFT, LCAC

These chapters provide evidence-based guidelines in terms of funding, disaster planning, and business continuity for hospitals in preparing for an all-hazards event. Given recent natural and man-made catastrophic events in our country, there could be no better time for hospitals to focus on their individual and collective emergency preparedness and response. Facts and questions are posed in a way to give hospitals a pause for thought of a serious and planned approach to evolving their emergency response beyond the typical internal situations.
—Sheila Mishler, MSN, RN, PMHCN S-BC