Silicon, as a single-crystal semiconductor, has sparked a revolution in the field of electronics and touched nearly every field of science and technology. Though available abundantly as silica and in various other forms in nature, silicon is difficult to separate from its chemical compounds because of its reactivity. As a solid, silicon is chemical
Introduction. Silicon: The Key Material for Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology. Importance of Single Crystals for Integrated Circuit Fabrication. Different Techniques for Growing Single-Crystal Silicon. From Silicon Ingots to Silicon Wafers. Evaluation of Silicon Wafers. Resistivity and Impurity Concentration Mapping of Silicon Wafers. Impurities in Silicon Wafers. Defects in Silicon Wafers. Silicon Wafer Preparation for VLSI and ULSI Processing. Packing of Silicon Wafers.