Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI  book cover
1st Edition

Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI

ISBN 9781138034198
Published October 19, 2016 by CRC Press
430 Pages - 264 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Silicon, as a single-crystal semiconductor, has sparked a revolution in the field of electronics and touched nearly every field of science and technology. Though available abundantly as silica and in various other forms in nature, silicon is difficult to separate from its chemical compounds because of its reactivity. As a solid, silicon is chemically inert and stable, but growing it as a single crystal creates many technological challenges.

Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is one of the first books to cover the systematic growth of silicon single crystals and the complete evaluation of silicon, from sand to useful wafers for device fabrication. Written for engineers and researchers working in semiconductor fabrication industries, this practical text:

  • Describes different techniques used to grow silicon single crystals
  • Explains how grown single-crystal ingots become a complete silicon wafer for integrated-circuit fabrication
  • Reviews different methods to evaluate silicon wafers to determine suitability for device applications
  • Analyzes silicon wafers in terms of resistivity and impurity concentration mapping
  • Examines the effect of intentional and unintentional impurities
  • Explores the defects found in regular silicon-crystal lattice
  • Discusses silicon wafer preparation for VLSI and ULSI processing

Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is an essential reference for different approaches to the selection of the basic silicon-containing compound, separation of silicon as metallurgical-grade pure silicon, subsequent purification, single-crystal growth, and defects and evaluation of the deviations within the grown crystals.

Table of Contents


About the Author


Silicon: The Semiconductor

Why Single Crystals

Revolution in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology and the Art of Device Miniaturization

Use of Silicon as a Semiconductor

Silicon Devices for Boolean Applications

Integration of Silicon Devices and the Art of Circuit Miniaturization

MOS and CMOS Devices for Digital Applications

LSI, VLSI, and ULSI Circuits and Applications

Silicon for MEMS Applications



Silicon: The Key Material for Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology


Preparation of Raw Silicon Material

Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

Purification of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

Ultra-High Pure Silicon for Electronics Application

Polycrystalline Silicon Feed for Crystal Growth



Importance of Single Crystals for Integrated Circuit Fabrication


Crystal Structures

Different Crystal Structures in Nature

Cubic Structures

Diamond Crystal Structure

Silicon Crystal Structure

Silicon Crystals and Atomic Packing Factors

Crystal Order and Perfection

Crystal Orientations and Planes

Influence of Dopants and Impurities in Silicon Crystals



Different Techniques for Growing Single-Crystal Silicon


Bridgman Crystal Growth Technique

Czochralski Crystal Growth/Pulling Technique

Crucible Choice for Molten Silicon

Chamber Temperature Profile

Seed Selection for Crystal Pulling

Environmental and Ambient Control in the Crystal Chamber

Crystal Pull Rate and Seed/Crucible Rotation

Dopant Addition for Growing Doped Crystals

Methods for Continuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

Impurity Segregation between Liquid and Grown Silicon Crystals

Crystal Growth Striations

Use of a Magnetic Field in the Czochralski Growth Technique

Large-Area Silicon Crystals for VLSI and ULSI Applications

Post-Growth Thermal Gradient and Crystal Cooling after Pull-Out

Float-Zone Crystal Growth Technique

Seed Selection

Environment and Chamber Ambient Control

Heating Mechanisms and RF Coil Shape

Crystal Growth Rate and Seed Rotation

Dopant Distribution in Growing Crystals

Impurity Segregation between Liquid and Grown Silicon Crystals

Use of Magnetic Field for Float-Zone Growth

Large Area Silicon Crystals and Limitations of Shape and Size

Thermal Gradient and Post-Growth Crystal Cooling

Zone Refining of Single-Crystal Silicon

Other Silicon Crystalline Structures and Growth Techniques

Silicon Ribbons

Silicon Sheets

Silicon Whiskers and Fibers

Silicon in Circular and Spherical Shapes

Silicon Hollow Tubes

Casting of Polycrystalline Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications



From Silicon Ingots to Silicon Wafers


Radial Resistivity Measurements

Boule Formation, Identification of Crystal Orientation, and Flats

Ingot Slicing

Mechanical Lapping of Wafer Slices

Edge Profiling of Slices

Chemical Etching and Mechanical Damage Removal

Chemimechanical Polishing for Planar Wafers

Surface Roughness and Overall Wafer Topography

Megasonic Cleaning

Final Cleaning and Inspection



Evaluation of Silicon Wafers


Acoustic Laser Probing Technique

Atomic-Force Microscope Studies on Surfaces

Auger Electron Spectroscopic Studies

Chemical Staining and Etching Techniques

Contactless Characterization

Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy

Defect Decoration by Metals

Electron Beam and High-Energy Electron Diffraction Studies

Flame Emission Spectrometry

Four-Point Probe Technique for Resistivity Measurement and Mapping

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements for Impurity Identification

Gas Fusion Analysis

Hall Mobility

Mass Spectra Analysis

Minority Carrier Diffusion Length/Lifetime/Surface Photovoltage

Optical Methods for Impurity Evaluation

Photoluminescence Method for Determining Impurity Concentrations

Gamma-Ray Diffractometry

Scanning Electron Microscopy for Defect Analysis

Scanning Optical Microscope

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer for Impurity Distribution

Spreading Resistance and Two-Point Probe Measurement Technique

Stress Measurements

Transmission Electron Microscopy

van der Pauw Resistivity Measurement Technique for Irregular-Shaped Wafers

X-Ray Technique for Crystal Perfection and Dislocation Density



Resistivity and Impurity Concentration Mapping of Silicon Wafers


Electrically Active and Inactive Impurities

Surface Mapping and Concentration Contours

Surface Roughness Mapping on a Complete Wafer



Impurities in Silicon Wafers

Effect of Intentional and Unintentional Impurities and Their Influence on Silicon Devices

Intentional Dopant Impurities in Silicon Wafers







Unintentional Dopant Impurities in Silicon Wafers













Other Metallic Impurities



Defects in Silicon Wafers


Impact of Defects in Silicon Devices and Structures

Point Defects and Vacancies

Line Defects

Bulk Defects and Voids

Dislocations and Screw Dislocations

Swirl Defects

Stacking Faults


Surface Pits/Crystal-Originated Particles

Grown Vacancies and Defects

Thermal Donors

Slips, Cracks, and Shape Irregularities

Stress, Bowing, and Warpage



Silicon Wafer Preparation for VLSI and ULSI Processing


Purity of Chemicals Used for Silicon Processing

Degreasing of Silicon Wafers

Removal of Metallic and Other Impurities

Gettering of Metallic Impurities

Denuding of Silicon Wafers

Neutron Irradiation

Argon Annealing of Wafers

Hydrogen Annealing of Wafers

Final Cleaning, Rinsing, and Wafer Drying



Packing of Silicon Wafers

Packing of Fully Processed Blank Silicon Wafers

Storage of Wafers and Control of Particulate Contamination

Storage of Wafers and Control of Particulate Contamination with Process-Bound Wafers




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Golla Eranna obtained his master’s degree from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India, with a top rank in the field of semiconductor physics. After that, he joined and received his Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras. Later, he moved to the IIT Kharagpur Microelectronics Centre. Dr. Eranna joined CEERI, Pilani, India, as a scientist and is currently a senior principal scientist. He became a professor under the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (CSIR, New Delhi), and regularly lectures on VLSI processing technology. He also maintains a full-fledged semiconductor device fabrication laboratory.