1st Edition

Culture, Diversity, and Criminal Justice Towards Culturally Safe Criminal Justice Systems

Edited By Alex Workman, Ranya Kaddour, Patricia M. Griffin Copyright 2023
    212 Pages 16 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    212 Pages 16 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This ground-breaking textbook engages readers in conversation about responding to the effects of diversity within formal criminal justice systems in Westernized nation-states. Moving past a binary concept of diversity that involves only race and gender, this book elaborates upon a wide variety of other forms of diversity, including sexuality, disability, mental health, gendered identity, refugees, the young and the ageing, and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) peoples, with an awareness of how intersecting identities make some people more vulnerable than others.

    With reported statistics providing only a snapshot of the incongruent experiences of diverse minorities in contact with criminal justice systems, there is a clear need for nuanced training and accessible information regarding diversity in criminal justice. The book examines diversity in terms of both criminal justice agents and justice-involved individuals such as people in prison, those convicted of crimes, the victimized, and the community. This volume brings together a group of international scholars to articulate on each of the identified populations, examining the effect of culture and diversity on criminal justice outcomes and outlining how those diverse perspectives can improve criminal justice service delivery overall.

    Incorporating case studies, reflections, and activity questions, this book is a valuable resource for courses in criminology, criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement, and is ideal for any program focusing on multiculturalism and diversity in criminal justice. Scholars, researchers, and professionals will also benefit from the analysis.


    Section 1 – Understanding Culture, Diversity, ad Criminal Justice

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Culture, Diversity, and Criminal Justice
    Alex Workman, Ranya Kaddour, and Patricia M. Griffin

    Chapter 2: Trauma-Informed Practices: The Need for Cultural Safety in Criminal Justice
    Tinashe Dune, Alex Workman, Patricia M. Griffin, and Ranya Kaddour

    Section 2 – Culturally Diverse People

    Chapter 3: Indigenous people
    Krystal Lockwood, Rachel Stringfellow, Stephen Corporal, and Sally Weidle

    Chapter 4: Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD)
    Rashmi Pithavadian and Meghna Bhat

    Chapter 5: Refugees and Asylum Seekers

    Mary Hilmi, Katarzyna Olcoń, and Melissa Phillips

    Chapter 6: People with Disabilities, Chronic Disease, and Illness
    Anita Eseosa Ogbeide, Ranya Kaddour, and Lydia Kaki Ocansey

    Chapter 7: Mental Health
    Bill Walsh, Jeffrey Czarnec, and Charles Tucker Jr.

    Chapter 8: Gender and Sexuality Diverse People
    Alex Workman, Matthew Ball, and Tinashe Dune

    Chapter 9: Women
    Jane Townsley, Ellie Lenawarungu, and Samantha Burton

    Chapter 10: Men
    Darren Stocker, Charles James Kocher, Robert Lindblom, and John McGuire

    Chapter 11: The Elderly
    Lacey Schaefer and Emily Moir

    Chapter 12: The Young
    Angelica Ojinnaka, Leah Maree, Annalise Zareba, and Asheka Jackson

    Section 3 – Toward a Culturally Safe Justice System

    Chapter 13: Intersectionality: The Way Forward for Culture, Diversity, and Criminology within Criminal Justice Systems
    Ranya Kaddour, Alex Workman, and Patricia. M Griffin



    Alex Workman (MRes) is a criminologist and has an interest in the social justice outcomes of marginalized populations, particularly those who are sexually diverse, and the intersections they have with other parts of their identity. Alex’s doctoral thesis investigates survivors of intimate partner violence and their manifestation of resilience after leaving the relationship. This study focuses on the lived experiences of gender and sexuality diverse people and other intersections of their identity such as people living with a disability, Indigenous people, culturally and linguistically diverse people, and religious minorities. Alex’s research focuses on the intersections of public health, criminology, policing, and human rights. The intersectional disciplinary approach to research has seen Alex travel internationally to present his research in Canada and Scotland as part of the Law Enforcement and Public Health (LEPH) conference. Additionally, Alex is now co-chair of the Intersectionality in Law Enforcement and Public Health Special Interest Group (GLEPHA). Alex has been teaching across a broad array of disciplines within health and social sciences including, cultural safety, policing, criminological theory, human rights, across undergraduate programs at Western Sydney University. Alex’s upcoming work centers around the concept of Whiteness with the title of this upcoming book being the Handbook of Critical Whiteness Deconstructing Dominant Discourses Across Disciplines.

    Ranya Kaddour (MRes) is a criminologist, holding undergraduate degrees in psychology from the Australian Catholic University and criminology from Western Sydney University. Ranya’s research focuses on vulnerable at at- risk groups including Australia’s Indigenous populations, women, and those with disabilities. Moreover, Ranya’s research focus strives to maintain that a person’s human rights are central to all decision- making processes, after working within a prisoner–rights justice agency. Ranya currently teaches in the undergraduate social science, social work, and health science programs at Western Sydney University.

    Patricia M. Griffin (PhD) is an Associate Professor Criminal Justice Program at Holy Family University (Philadelphia). She received her doctorate in criminal justice at Temple University. Pat began her career in federal law enforcement with the United States Office of Organized Crime and Labor Racketeering. Prior to joining Holy Family University, she held administrative appointments and lecturer positions at Saint Joseph’s University, Boston College, and Cabrini University. Patricia’s research interests include mixed-methods program evaluation. She has examined opioid use in policing and resilience in policing, and regularly consults with problem solving courts to advance evidence-based outcomes. Most recently, Patricia served as the Senior International Research Consultant, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, Region of East Africa. She is a Board Member of the Global Law Enforcement Public Health Association and Board Representative for the First Responder Health and Resilience and Intersectionality SIGs. She is a member of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency, CJAC.



    "This book is a powerfully written, engaging exploration of intersectionality and culturally safe practices. My first response, on reading was, to say, "Wow, this book has so many potential applications and I'll be recommending it to the many organisations I work with!". It is likely to be if value to new scholars, seasoned academics, policymakers, and practitioners alike. In many settings, we grapple with how to ensure that our approaches are inclusive and non-discriminatory. This book provides a framework likely to enhance critical thinking that will cause reflection and meaningful change across multiple sectors, including criminal justice. Highly recommend."
    Dr. Tracey Price-Allan, Director of MyCorZ Consultancy Ltd, Board Member of the Global Law Enforcement and Public Health Association (GLEPHA)

    "While it is questionable whether the criminal system can ever be culturally safe, this book makes an important contribution to critical understandings of cultural threats to marginalised people who are criminalised. It brings together a diverse field of scholars who interrogate the nature of criminalisation for oppressed peoples and make recommendations for systemic change. People in the criminalising system are often typecast as 'suspects', 'offenders' or 'inmates'. This book shines a light on their intersectional humanity and how the system intrudes on their, and our, basic human rights. Finally, this book addresses the toxic cultures within criminalising agencies that contribute to structural oppression within and outside of the agencies. This is a valuable resource for academics and students who want to learn about systemic bias and the harms it wreaks on individuals and society."
    Professor Thalia Anthony, Professor of Law, University of Technology Sydney

    "Understanding the underlying and implicit role diversity plays across criminal justice systems is vital in creating fair and just societies. This book provides a nuanced and in-depth analysis on working towards this shared goal and aspiration, whilst holding existing structures and systems accountable to being much better in its approach and application. Such diverse contexts and lived experiences can create cultural safe perspectives and practices as privileged across the various narratives within this edited collection."
    Professor Jioji Ravulo, The University of Sydney