This annual series presents research on the theory and practice of management. Its goal is to be truly comparative--in terms of the broad scope of management perspectives, in the broad-ranging locations of its research as well as its application, and in its comparisons of findings, methodologies, and operational definitions.Part I, "Organization Theory, Change, and Effectiveness," presents a model of organizational congruency, discusses managing interdependence to enhance organizational effectiveness, outlines a theoretical framework that clarifies the means by which IT can affect organizations' economic activities, and suggests how organization development approach can help find more satisfying equilibria of forces and stakeholders in today's organizational cultures. Part II, "Behavior and Attitudes in Organizations," considers values and leadership roles, discusses the role played by trust in interfirm collaboration, and explores the relationship between organizational climate and ethical decisions. Part III, "International and Cross-cultural Management," looks at various issues of management including power bases of supervisors and subordinates' conflict management strategies and commitment, organizational commitment of the U.S. and Korean workers; superior-subordinate communication in a multicultural workforce in Macao, and cynicism toward change in the public sector in Australia. Part IV, "Human Resource Management," deals with consequences of removing performance appraisal and merit pay; the entrepreneurial role to bring disconnected parties together for economic, social and/or political benefits; and relationships of downsizing to career perceptions and psychological contract. Part V, "Inference and Data in Management Research," urges greater use of strong inference and discusses the strength of data and the interaction between data and inference in a procedure called strong inference.