948 Pages 650 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The Classic Text—Expanded, Updated...More Authoritative than Ever!

    Cutaneous Melanoma
    is the definitive and most authoritative textbook on melanoma used worldwide. This 5th edition provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive information needed for the clinical management and scientific study of melanoma. Written by the leading melanoma experts from the United States, Australia, and Europe, this new edition collectively incorporates the clinical outcomes of more than 60,000 patients treated at major melanoma centers throughout the world.

    Comprehensive Coverage—from Prevention to Advanced Treatment
    This new edition provides in-depth coverage, ranging from precursors of melanoma to advanced stages of metastatic disease; from melanoma genes to population-based epidemiology; and from prevention of melanoma to all forms of multidisciplinary treatments. Basic principles of diagnosis and pathologic examination are combined with treatment approaches for the many clinical presentations. Clinical management is supported by statistical data about natural history, prognosis, and treatment results. The latest information on staging and prognosis, as well as randomized prospective clinical trials involving surgical treatment and systemic treatments, is included. This volume presents a balanced perspective of the risks and benefits involved in each treatment modality. The book also contains: 1) a comprehensive color atlas of melanoma and its precursors, 2) illustrated surgical and perfusion techniques for every stage and anatomic location of melanoma, and 3) complex genetic and molecular pathways involving melanoma biology. Every drug and biologic agent in use today is described with indications and efficacy.

    Entirely Revised and Updated
    Seven new chapters discuss the emerging clinical data on the use of biomarkers, adjuvant therapies, targeted therapies, and immune modulation as well as significant clinical research advances in the clinical management of melanoma. The remaining 37 chapters have been extensively updated and revised to include the latest clinical, radiological, and pathological data and clinical trial advances.

    Cutaneous Melanoma, 5th Edition, retains the logical organization and clarity of expression responsible for its enduring popularity over the last 23 years. This volume will become an invaluable part of your library and a trusted resource that you will refer to again and again.

    The most comprehensive reference on melanoma available today!

    New Chapters Include:

    • Clinical Genetics and Risk Assessment
    • Sentinel Lymph Node and Regional Micrometastases
    • Multidisciplinary Management of CNS Metastases
    • Adjuvant Therapy for Cutaneous Melanoma
    • Immune Modulation Therapy Using Anti-CTLA-4 Monoclonal Antibodies
    • Melanoma-Specific Targeted Therapies
    • Biomarkers for Cutaneous Melanoma

    A History of Melanoma: From Hunter to Milton; Arthur J. Sober, Helen M. Shaw, John F. Thompson

    John Hunter (1728-1793)
    René Laennec (1781-1826)
    William Norris (1792-1877)
    Oliver Pemberton (1825-1897)
    James Paget (1814-1899)
    Sir Jonathan Hutchinson (1828-1913)
    William Sampson Handley (1872-1962)
    Alexander Breslow (1928-1980)
    Vincent J. McGovern (1915-1983)
    Sophie Spitz (1910-1956)
    Arthur Allen (1910-1994)
    Wallace H. Clark, Jr. (1924-1997)
    Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, Jr. (1919-2003)
    Gerald W. Milton (1924-2007)

    Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Staging

    Epidemiology of Melanoma; Bruce K. Armstrong, Alisa M. Goldstein

    Worldwide incidence and mortality patterns
    Correlates of melanoma risk
    Demographic correlates
    Constitutional correlates
    Environmental and behavioral correlates
    Present and future trends in melanoma incidence and mortality

    Prognostic Factors and Natural History of Melanoma; Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Charles M. Balch, Seng-jaw Soong, John F. Thompson

    AJCC melanoma staging system analyses—overview of the AJCC international melanoma database and 2002 melanoma staging system
    Overview of the 2002 (sixth edition) AJCC melanoma database and melanoma staging system
    Validation of the AJCC melanoma staging system
    Prognostic factors in primary melanoma (stages I and II)
    Prognostic factors in regionally metastatic melanoma: lymph node metastases, satellite lesions, and in-transit metastases
    AJCC melanoma database: multivariate analysis for stage III patients
    Prognostic factor analyses in patients with distant metastatic melanoma (stage IV)
    AJCC melanoma database analysis: stage IV

    Melanoma Staging and Classification; Charles M. Balch, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Seng-jaw Soong, Arthur J. Sober, John M. Kirkwood

    Primary sites
    Regional lymph nodes
    Metastatic sites
    Rules for classification
    Clinical staging
    Pathologic staging
    Clinical versus pathologic staging
    TNM classification
    Primary tumor (T)
    Regional lymph nodes (N)
    Distant metastatic melanoma (M)
    Staging recommendations for metastases from unknown primary site
    Stage groupings
    Data-recording criteria

    Models for Predicting Melanoma Outcome; Seng-jaw Soong, Shouluan Ding, Daniel G. Coit, Charles M. Balch

    Description of the statistical model
    Hazard function
    Survival function
    Predicting outcome from initial diagnosis for patients with localized melanoma
    Hazard function estimation and parametric modeling for localized melanoma
    Predicting outcome from initial diagnosis for patients with regional melanoma
    Predicting outcome after a disease-free interval in patients with localized melanoma
    Clinical applications
    Clinical scoring system
    Disease management decisions
    Patient risk classification
    Planning clinical trials
    Analysis of clinical studies
    Other applications

    Screening: Clinical Assessment and Pathology

    Melanoma Prevention and Screening; J. Mark Elwood, Jennifer Kay Makin, Craig A. Sinclair, Robert Burton

    Prevention of melanoma
    Reducing personal exposure: shade, clothing, and sunscreens
    Intervention trials of the prevention of skin cancers and related lesions
    Behavioral change programs for reducing personal exposure
    Vitamin D
    Controlling exposure to sunbeds
    Prevention of melanoma: recommendations
    Screening for melanoma
    Uncertainties and conflicts in melanoma screening
    Evidence relating to the effectiveness of screening
    Programs of screening
    Challenges in the detection of progressive melanoma

    Clinical Genetics and Risk Assessment of Melanoma; Graham J. Mann, Hensin Tsao

    Clinical risk assessment
    Baseline risks attributable to age and sex
    Previous melanoma or other skin cancer
    Multiple melanocytic nevi
    Skin and hair color, skin phototype, and freckling
    Sun exposure and its surrogates
    Family history of melanoma
    Genetic risk of melanoma
    Mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 in familial melanoma
    Pancreatic cancer and other phenotypes
    CDKN2A mutations in sporadic and multiple primary melanoma
    Melanoma risk to CDKN2A mutation carriers
    Low-penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes
    Genetic testing for melanoma risk?
    Management of high-risk individuals
    The future

    Acquired Precursor Lesions and Phenotypic Markers of Increased Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma; Scott W. Menzies, Hensin Tsao, Arthur J. Sober

    Pigment phenotype
    Constitutive pigmentation (racial)
    Hair and eye color
    Oculocutaneous albinism
    Ephelis (freckle)
    Benign (common) acquired moles (nevi)
    Atypical moles
    Lentigo maligna

    Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma; Allan C. Halpern, Ashfaq A. Marghoob, Arthur J. Sober

    Personal history of skin cancer
    Clinical presentation
    Signs and symptoms
    Clinical features
    Growth patterns
    Clinical assessment
    Physical examinations
    Diagnostic accuracy and aids to diagnosis
    New technologies for diagnosis
    Image analysis for diagnosis
    Multispectral imaging and automated diagnosis
    Confocal scanning laser microscopy
    Other techniques: ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography
    Evolving paradigms in the analysis of dermoscopic images
    How we analyze images

    Biopsy of Suspected Melanomas; Nanette J. Liégeois,Timothy M. Johnson, Arthur J. Sober

    Prebiopsy lesion assessment
    Biopsy techniques
    Excisional biopsy
    Incisional biopsy
    Fine-needle aspiration
    Frozen sections
    Biopsy of the nail unit
    Biopsy of the mucosa

    Pathology of Melanoma; Richard Anthony Scolyer, Martin C. Mihm, Jr., Alistair J. Cochran, Klaus J. Busam, Stanley William McCarthy

    Pathologic assessment of melanocytic tumors: goals and expectations
    Biopsy techniques for clinically suspicious melanocytic tumors: the hazards of incomplete biopsies
    Pathologic examination of the primary melanoma site
    Clinical correlation for enhancement of pathologic accuracy
    Specimen orientation
    Melanoma tumor progression: the concept of radial and vertical growth phases
    Clinicopathologic classification of melanoma
    Superficial spreading melanoma
    Lentigo maligna melanoma
    Acrolentiginous melanoma
    Nodular melanoma
    Histologic features of vertical growth phase melanoma
    Predominantly epithelioid cell vertical growth phase
    Predominantly spindle cell vertical growth phase
    Mixed spindle cell and epithelioid cell vertical growth phase
    Nevoid vertical growth phase (nevoid melanoma)
    The melanoma pathology report including a synoptic format
    Uncommon melanoma variants
    Metastatic melanoma
    Fine-needle biopsy in melanoma patients
    Clear cell sarcoma (melanoma of soft parts)
    Molecular pathology of melanoma
    The concept of the cancer stem cell
    The metastatic niche concept

    Management of Localized Melanoma

    Excision of Primary Melanoma; Merrick I. Ross

    Excision of primary melanoma: fundamental concepts
    Historical perspective and the emergence of a contemporary paradigm
    Thin melanoma (T1 and T2; less than 2 mm) excision trials
    The Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial (T2 and T3 melanomas; 1 to 4 mm)
    Thicker melanoma (T3 and T4; greater than 2 mm) excision trials
    Current recommendations
    Excisions for histologic variants
    Techniques for routine wound closure
    Excisions for melanomas in unusual or restrictive locations

    Complex Closures of Melanoma Excisions; Maurice Y. Nahabedian, Jonathan R. Stretch, Anthony P.Tufaro

    Principles of reconstructive surgery
    Assessment of the acquired defect
    Reconstructive options for complex wounds
    Undermining with primary closure
    Skin grafts
    Composite grafts
    Local flaps
    Regional flaps
    Free tissue transfer
    Tissue expansion
    Complex closures: regional considerations and clinical application
    Head and neck
    Surgical salvage for extensive and recurrent melanoma

    Local Recurrences of Melanoma and Their Management; Kenneth K.Tanabe, Douglas S. Reintgen, Charles M. Balch

    Risk factors for local recurrence
    Surgical margins and local recurrence
    Sentinel node biopsy and local recurrence
    Timing of local recurrences
    Local recurrence and survival

    Mucosal Melanoma; Merrick I. Ross, Michael A. Henderson

    Pathologic features and diagnosis
    Staging and prognosis
    Mucosal melanomas in the head and neck
    Clinical presentation
    Differential diagnosis
    Prognosis and natural history
    Mucosal melanomas in the female genital tract
    Vulvar melanoma
    Vaginal melanoma
    Anorectal mucosal melanomas
    Clinical and pathologic features
    Mucosal melanomas at other sites
    Urinary tract
    Role of radiotherapy

    Melanoma in Children and Teenagers; Julie R. Lange, Ira J. Dunkel, Helen M. Shaw, Arthur J. Sober

    Congenital melanoma
    Precursors and risk factors
    Giant congenital nevi
    Small and medium congenital nevi
    Xeroderma pigmentosum
    Constitutional risk factors
    Ultraviolet exposure
    Clinical presentation
    Diagnosis and surgical management
    Medical management
    Vaccine trials
    Follow-up and surveillance

    Pregnancy and the Use of Hormones in Melanoma Patients; Rona M. MacKie

    Nevi and pregnancy
    Pregnancy before melanoma
    Melanoma before pregnancy
    Melanoma during pregnancy
    Effect of pregnancy on disease outcome
    Transplacental metastases
    Treatment of melanoma during pregnancy
    Adjuvant nonsurgical therapy for pregnant women
    Oral contraception and melanoma
    Use of oral contraception and subsequent risk of melanoma
    Use of oral contraceptives after treatment for melanoma
    Hormone replacement therapy and melanoma
    Appropriate advice on planning pregnancy after treatment for melanoma
    In vitro fertilization and melanoma

    Management of Regional Metastases

    The Sentinel Lymph Node and Regional Melanoma Micrometastases; Donald L. Morton, Alistair J. Cochran, John F. Thompson, Vernon K. Sondak

    The history and conceptual basis of sentinel node biopsy
    Anatomic versus functional definitions of the sentinel lymph node
    Incubator versus marker theory
    Immunology of the sentinel node
    Pathobiology of tumor-induced immunosuppression of the sentinel node
    Sentinel node biopsy for staging clinically localized melanoma
    Interim results of the first Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial
    Should lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy be the standard of care for cutaneous melanoma?
    LM/SNB increases the chance of remaining disease free
    LM/SNB is a superior staging technique for identifying appropriate candidates for adjuvant therapy
    No noninvasive staging alternative is available
    Early treatment of patients with a positive sentinel node may improve survival
    "False-positivity" does not apply to the sentinel node
    LM/SNB for melanomas that are not intermediate in thickness
    Unresolved issues and ongoing research
    The second Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial
    Carbon particle mapping

    Lymphoscintigraphy in Patients with Melanoma; Roger F. Uren, John F. Thompson, Brendon J. Coventry, Barry E. Chatterton

    Definition of a sentinel node
    Lymphatic mapping of the skin: early studies
    The first radiocolloid and early experience with lymphoscintigraphy
    99mTc-labeled colloids
    99mTc–antimony sulfide colloid
    99mTc–rhenium sulfide colloid and 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid
    99mTc-sulfur colloid
    99mTc–human serum albumin
    What is the ideal radiocolloid?
    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures
    Lymphoscintigraphy technique
    Injecting the tracer
    Immediate dynamic imaging
    Delayed static imaging
    Unexpected lymphatic drainage pathways
    Marking the surface location of the sentinel node
    Radiation dosimetry: risks to the patient
    Radiation dosimetry: risks to the pregnant patient
    Radiation dosimetry: risks to attending staff
    Patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin
    Head and neck
    The limbs
    Interval nodes
    Drainage to multiple node fields
    Complex lymphatic drainage patterns
    Lymphoscintigraphy in clinically involved node fields
    The future
    New tracers for lymphatic mapping
    Gamma probes for intraoperative detection of radioactivity
    Gamma cameras for intraoperative imaging
    Alternate methods of lymphatic mapping

    Intraoperative Mapping and Sentinel Node Technology in Patients with Melanoma; Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, John F. Thompson, Nicola Mozzillo, Charles M. Balch

    Approach to clinically negative regional lymph node basins in patients with early-stage primary cutaneous melanoma
    Rationale for lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
    Technique for lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
    Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in pathologic regional lymph node staging: prognostic value of sentinel lymph node pathologic status
    Early results
    Prognostic significance
    Patterns of failure after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy
    Clinical relevance of submicroscopic disease
    Ongoing clinical trials of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
    Technical planning: overall approach
    Patient selection
    Special situations
    Approach to patients after previous wide local excision
    Approach to patients with irregular lymphatic drainage patterns
    Desmoplastic histology
    Complications and morbidity after lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
    Technical considerations: lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
    General operating room positioning strategies

    Axillary and Epitrochlear Lymph Node Dissection for Melanoma; Kelly M. McMasters, Sandra L.Wong, Douglas S.Tyler, Charles M. Balch, John F. Thompson

    Axillary dissection
    Surgical technique
    Operative approaches to the upper axilla for recurrent or bulky axillary metastases
    Postoperative management
    Epitrochlear dissection
    Surgical technique

    Inguinofemoral, Iliac/Obturator, and Popliteal Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Melanoma; Lisa K. Jacobs, Charles M. Balch, Daniel G. Coit

    Inguinofemoral dissection
    Modifications of the classic technique of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy
    Iliac/obturator (deep pelvic) lymph node dissection
    Operative technique
    Postoperative complications: incidence and risk factors
    Complications of lymph node dissection
    Management of postoperative complications
    Popliteal dissection
    Operative technique

    Neck Dissection and Parotidectomy for Melanoma; Anthony P. Tufaro, Suhail K. Mithani, Joseph A. Califano III, Ashok Shaha

    Patterns of metastatic spread and extent of dissection
    Neck dissection
    Comprehensive neck dissection
    Selective neck dissection
    Preoperative evaluation
    Anesthesia and positioning
    Clinical outcome
    Adjuvant radiotherapy

    Recurrent Regional Metastases of Melanoma; Daniel G. Coit, Cristina R. Ferrone

    In-transit metastases
    Adjuvant therapy
    Recurrent nodal metastases after lymph node dissection
    Adjuvant therapy

    Radiotherapy for Primary and Regional Melanoma; Graham Stevens, Bryan Burmeister

    Role of radiotherapy in the management of primary melanoma
    Adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical excision
    Results of curative radiotherapy alone
    Radiotherapy for lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma
    Treatment recommendations for the use of radiotherapy in primary melanoma and lentigo maligna
    Illustrative cases
    Role of radiotherapy in the management of in-transit metastasis
    Treatment recommendations for the use of radiotherapy for in-transit melanoma
    Illustrative cases
    Role of radiotherapy in the management of regional lymph node metastasis
    Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy after regional lymph node dissection
    Results of adjuvant radiotherapy after complete lymph node dissection
    Adjuvant radiotherapy after limited lymph node dissection
    Preoperative radiotherapy for bulky nodal disease
    Palliative radiotherapy for unresectable regional nodal disease
    Treatment recommendations for the use of radiotherapy in regional nodal metastasis
    Adjuvant radiotherapy after complete lymph node dissection
    Adjuvant radiotherapy after limited lymph node dissection or no dissection
    Therapeutic (palliative) radiotherapy
    Illustrative cases

    Hyperthermic Regional Perfusion for Melanoma of the Limbs; H. Richard Alexander, Jr., Douglas L. Fraker, Alexander M.M. Eggermont

    Epidemiology and natural history
    Historical perspective and early clinical series
    Technical aspects of isolated limb perfusion
    Pharmacokinetics of melphalan in isolated limb perfusion
    Other chemotherapeutic agents
    Tumor necrosis factor
    Toxicity of isolated limb perfusion
    Adjuvant isolated limb perfusion
    Therapeutic limb perfusion
    Melphalan alone
    Melphalan and tumor necrosis factor

    Isolated Limb Infusion for Melanoma; Georgia M. Beasley, Hidde M. Kroon, Merrick I. Ross, Peter C. A. Kam, John F. Thompson, Douglas S. Tyler

    Similarities and differences between isolated limb infusion and conventional hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion
    Patient selection for isolated limb infusion
    Technical details of the isolated limb infusion procedure
    Preoperative assessment and management
    Insertion and positioning of arterial and venous catheters
    Procedure in the operating room
    Postoperative care
    Pharmacokinetics of melphalan
    Use of microdialysis to monitor drug concentrations in limb tissues and tumor deposits during isolated limb infusion
    Limb and systemic toxicity after isolated limb infusion
    Factors predicting toxicity after isolated limb infusion
    Clinical results of isolated limb infusion
    Factors predicting outcome after isolated limb infusion
    Limb temperatures during isolated limb infusion
    Tourniquet times
    Interpretation of prognostic factors data
    Repeat isolated limb infusion for disease progression after initial isolated limb infusion
    Comparison with hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion
    Laboratory studies of isolated limb infusion
    Potential use of the isolated limb infusion technique to evaluate other drugs and biologic agents

    Diagnosis and Local Treatment of Distant Metastases

    Metastatic Surveillance and Follow-up of Melanoma Patients; Julie R. Lange, Axel Hauschild, Anne Brecht Francken

    Goals of surveillance
    Patterns of melanoma recurrence
    Risk of local and regional recurrence
    Time to recurrence
    Strategies for active follow-up of melanoma patients
    Detection of recurrences
    Role of physical examination
    Patient education
    Patient well-being and follow-up
    Follow-up schedules
    Radiologic studies and laboratory tests
    Screening for risk of new primary melanomas
    Screening for other primary cancers
    Current recommendations for surveillance

    Diagnosis of Stage IV Melanoma; Michael B. Atkins, Axel Hauschild, Richard L.Wahl, Charles M. Balch

    Timing of distant metastasis
    Pattern of metastasis
    Prognosis and prognostic factors
    Sites of distant metastases
    Number of metastatic sites
    Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase
    Duration of remission
    Performance status
    Other prognostic factors
    Clinical evaluation of metastasis
    History and physical examination
    Laboratory tests/biomarkers
    Radiologic tests
    Pathologic tests
    Sites of distant metastases
    Skin, subcutaneous tissues, and distant lymph nodes
    Lung, pleura, and mediastinum
    Brain and spinal cord
    Gastrointestinal tract
    Liver, biliary tract, and spleen
    Kidneys and urinary tract
    Heart and pericardium
    Peritoneum and mesentery
    Endocrine organs
    Ovaries, uterus, and placenta
    Testes and penis
    Oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx
    Eye and orbit
    Cutaneous melanosis
    Metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary site
    Surveillance in patients who have localized melanoma

    Surgical Excision of Distant Melanoma Metastases; John F. Thompson, Donald L. Morton, Charles M. Balch, Merrick I. Ross

    Current status of surgery for stage IV melanoma
    Relationships between tumor burden, immune function, and surgical treatment
    Selection of patients and prognostic factors
    Outcomes after surgical resection of melanoma metastases at specific sites
    Skin, subcutaneous tissue, and lymph nodes
    Lung, trachea, and bronchi
    Brain and spinal cord
    Gastrointestinal tract
    Liver, biliary tract, and spleen
    Kidney and urinary tract
    Heart and pericardium
    Endocrine organs
    Ovaries, uterus, and vagina
    Testes and penis
    Oral cavity and pharynx
    Eye and orbit

    Radiotherapy for Distant Metastases and Clinical Radiobiology of Melanoma; Graham Stevens, Angela Hong, Michael J. McKay

    Radiotherapy for distant metastases
    Skin and subcutaneous metastases
    Lymph node metastases
    Brain metastases
    Malignant spinal cord compression
    Bone metastases
    Sites irradiated less commonly
    Developing sites for focused radiation treatment
    Illustrative cases
    Clinical radiobiology of melanoma
    Biologic factors affecting the ionizing radiation response of melanoma
    Intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity
    Tumor oxygenation and microenvironmental
    Tumor cell proliferation kinetics
    Number of clonogenic tumor cells
    Influence of melanization on radiosensitivity
    Host factors in melanoma response and outcome
    Future possibilities
    Methods to improve the response of melanoma cells
    Methods to improve the delivery of radiation to melanoma metastases

    Multidisciplinary Management of CNS Melanoma Metastases; Kim A. Margolin, George M. Cannon, Minesh P. Mehta, Michael Y. Chen

    Risk factors and prognosis
    Clinical features
    Neurosurgical management of brain metastasis
    Radiotherapeutic and radiosurgical management of melanoma metastatic to the brain or spine
    Whole-brain radiotherapy
    Whole-brain radiotherapy alone
    Surgery followed by whole-brain radiotherapy
    Stereotactic radiosurgery
    Systemic therapy for melanoma metastatic to the central nervous system
    Systemic therapy considerations after adequate control of the central nervous system
    Palliative approach
    Aggressive approach
    Investigational approach

    Systemic Treatment of Metastatic Disease

    Adjuvant Systemic Therapy for High-Risk Melanoma Patients; John M. Kirkwood, Vernon K. Sondak, Peter Hersey, Helen Gogas

    Who should be considered for adjuvant therapy?
    Chemotherapy alone or in multiagent combinations as adjuvant therapy for melanoma
    Microbial immunostimulants
    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
    Corynebacterium parvum
    Hormonal therapy
    Melanoma vaccines tested in phase III adjuvant trials
    Adjuvant interferons as postoperative adjuvant therapy for melanoma
    Adjuvant applications of interferon-alpha-2
    Adjuvant applications of interferon-gamma
    Emerging new modalities of adjuvant therapy
    Biomarkers of prognosis and response

    Chemotherapy-Based Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma; Michael B. Atkins, Mark R. Middleton, Paul B. Chapman

    Single-agent chemotherapy
    Dacarbazine and temozolomide
    Microtubule toxins
    Combination cytotoxic chemotherapy
    Nitrosourea combinations
    Taxane-based combination therapy
    Cisplatin-based combination therapy
    Chemohormonal therapy
    Interferon alpha–based biochemotherapy regimens
    Interleukin-2–based regimens
    Interleukin-2 and DTIC/temozolomide combinations
    Cisplatin and interleukin-2–based biochemotherapy regimens
    Inpatient concurrent biochemotherapy regimens
    Phase III biochemotherapy trials
    Other biochemotherapy investigations
    Non–interleukin-2 or interferon-based biochemotherapy combinations
    Chemotherapy and antiangiogenic or targeted therapy
    Antiangiogenic agents
    Antiapoptosis-inducing agents
    Selection of future phase III trials

    Interferon Therapy for Melanoma; Ernest C. Borden, Stergios J. Moschos, John M. Kirkwood

    Endogenous interferons as part of the host response to cancer
    The family of interferon proteins and signaling activation
    Mechanisms of antitumor action in melanoma
    Signaling by interferons
    Cellular mechanisms of action of interferons
    Interferon-alpha-2 in the treatment of melanoma
    The future of interferons in melanoma biology and therapy

    Interleukins and Cellular Therapies for Melanoma; Douglas J. Schwartzentruber

    Pharmacology of interleukin-2
    Immunologic activity of interleukin-2
    Systemic effects of interleukin-2
    Clinical efficacy of high-dose interleukin-2 alone
    Clinical efficacy of alternate doses, routes, and schedules of interleukin-2 alone
    Clinical efficacy of interleukin-2 combined with interferon-alpha
    Clinical efficacy of interleukin-2 combined with other cytokines, immune modulators, antibodies, or vaccines
    Agents to reduce the toxicity of interleukin-2
    Predictors of clinical response
    Other cytokines for treatment of metastatic melanoma
    Clinical efficacy of interleukin-2 combined with cellular therapy

    Melanoma Vaccines; Jedd D.Wolchok, Jeffrey S.Weber

    Tumor immunology
    Antigen discovery
    Vaccine approaches
    Cell vaccines
    Transduced cell vaccines
    HLA-restricted melanoma-associated antigenic peptides
    Ganglioside vaccines
    Antiidiotypic monoclonal antibodies mimicking ganglioside antigens
    Protein antigens
    Heat-shock protein–based vaccines
    DNA vaccination
    Dendritic cell vaccines
    Recombinant viral vaccines
    Combination strategies and the future of melanoma vaccines

    Immune Modulators in the Treatment of Patients with Melanoma; James P. Allison, F. Stephen Hodi, Yvonne M. Saenger, Jedd D. Wolchok

    Biology of CTLA-4–mediated immune inhibition
    Preclinical development of anti-CTLA-4 as an anticancer agent
    Anti-CTLA-4: clinical experience in melanoma
    Efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade: summary of clinical trials to date
    CTLA-4 blockade and immune-related adverse events
    Kinetics of response
    Patient selection and predictors of toxicity and antitumor response
    Dose and schedule of anti-CTLA-4 administration
    Correlative immunologic studies
    Vaccination strategies in combination with CTLA-4 blockade
    Combination of CTLA-4 blockade and GM-CSF vaccination in murine models
    Clinical investigation of combination CTLA-4 blockade and autologous GM-CSF–secreting tumor vaccination
    CTLA-4 blockade with peptide vaccines
    Other CTLA-4 antibody and immunotherapy combinations

    Melanoma-Specific Targeted Therapies; Paul B. Chapman, David B. Solit, Keith T. Flaherty

    Targeting cell surface molecules
    Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in melanoma
    Monoclonal antibodies
    Targeting intracellular molecules
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in melanoma
    Drugs that inhibit BRAF
    Hsp90 inhibitors
    Drugs that inhibit MEK
    Targeting PI3/AKT pathway
    Angiogenesis inhibition in melanoma

    Biology of Melanoma

    Genetics and Molecular Pathology of Melanoma; Boris C. Bastian, Daniel Pinkel, Amaya Viros

    Distinct patterns of epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic features in melanoma
    Emerging melanoma subtypes based on genotypephenotype correlations
    Melanomas on sun-exposed sites
    Melanomas on relatively or absolutely UV-protected sites
    Melanocytic tumors arising without associations to epithelial structures

    Biology of Melanocytes and Primary Melanoma; Glenn Merlino, Vincent J. Hearing

    Development of melanoblasts
    Regulation of specification
    Regulation of migration
    Regulation of survival and proliferation
    Differentiation of melanocytes
    Regulation of differentiation
    Regulation of survival
    From melanocyte to melanoma: a multistep process
    Molecular genetics: early lessons from familial and sporadic melanoma
    Melanoma: a consequence of homeostatic disruption
    Melanoma: cell of origin
    Melanoma and the environment
    Sun exposure and epidemiology
    Photobiology and melanoma

    Biology of Melanoma Metastasis; Menashe Bar-Eli, Isaiah J. Fidler

    The pathogenesis of melanoma metastasis
    Transcriptional regulation of melanoma progression
    Role of AP-2-α in melanoma progression
    Role of CREB/ATF-1 in melanoma progression
    Involvement of ATF-2 in melanoma progression
    SNAIL: its regulatory pathway in melanoma
    MITF: its role in melanoma progression
    Regulation of melanoma metastasis by the tumor microenvironment
    Role of platelet-activating factor receptor
    Potential therapeutic approaches to inhibiting melanoma metastasis
    Using fully humanized antibodies to MCAM/MUC18 to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of human melanoma
    Using fully humanized neutralizing antibodies to interleukin-8 (ABX-IL-8) to inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis of human melanoma

    Immunology of Melanoma; Suzanne L.Topalian, Lieping Chen, Janis M.Taube, Paul F. Robbins, Jedd D.Wolchok, Alan N. Houghton

    Innate immunity
    Adaptive immunity
    Melanoma antigens
    General principles for identification of tumor antigens recognized by T cells and antibodies
    Nonmutated self-antigens
    Mutant melanoma antigens
    Altered peptide ligands: enhancing the immunogenicity of low-affinity melanoma epitopes
    Experimental models
    Immune regulation and tolerance
    Costimulatory/coinhibitory receptors
    Regulatory T cells
    Implications for immunotherapy

    Biomarkers for Melanoma; Elizabeth A. Grimm, Dave S.B. Hoon, Lyn McDivitt Duncan

    Potential clinical impact of melanoma biomarkers
    Melanoma heterogeneity
    Melanoma biomarker discovery and validation process
    Biomarkers in early-stage melanoma
    Molecular markers in primary cutaneous melanoma
    Biomarkers for later-stage melanoma
    Molecular markers in sentinel lymph nodes
    Molecular markers in blood
    Molecular markers in metastatic tumors

    Additional Credits



    Charles Balch, Alan Houghton, Arthur Sober, Seng-jaw Soong, Michael Atkins, John Thompsn

    "This is the fourth edition of the book that is no doubt the premier text on cutaneous melanoma. The book is oriented to all health care workers and researchers involved in the care of patients with melanomas. This includes, but is not limited to, the dermatologist, medical oncologist, surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and cosmetic surgeons, as well as nurses and other practitioners who diagnose or treat patients with melanoma. The 73 distinguished contributors have combined to put together 39 chapters in 7 parts or sections. ...The photos are outstanding and the information invaluable. The book belongs in every physician’s library, whatever his or her specialty, to raise awareness of the deadly disease."
    The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery

    "Overall, the text is easy to use and well indexed. I find that it is my reference text of choice for any melanoma-related questions that arise during the day. The authors should be commended for their fine and highly accessible work."
    American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

    "…should serve as an invaluable source of information to all clinicians involved in the care of patients with malignant melanoma and to basic scientists who want to become more familiar with various clinical aspects of the disease. I intend to keep it on my desk and refer to it in my practice."
    Journal of the American Medical Association