Cyanide in Water and Soil: Chemistry, Risk, and Management, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Cyanide in Water and Soil

Chemistry, Risk, and Management, 1st Edition

Edited by David A. Dzombak, Rajat S. Ghosh, George M. Wong-Chong

CRC Press

616 pages | 142 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781566706667
pub: 2005-12-09
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Description

The presence of cyanide is a significant issue in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, in remediation of former manufactured gas plant sites and aluminum production waste disposal sites, in treatment and management of residuals from hydrometallurgical gold mining, and in other industrial operations in which cyanide-bearing wastes were produced. The complexity of the chemistry and toxicology of cyanide and the risk it poses in different environmental contexts make its management and remediation extremely challenging. Cyanide in Water and Soil is the first book to present the state-of-the-art in managing cyanide across a wide range of industrial and environmental contexts.

The book brings together current knowledge and information about cyanide release to and behavior in the environment, and explores how to control or remediate these releases. No other broad-based examination of this topic exists. Exploring the anthropogenic and natural sources of cyanide in the environment, the authors address the full range of issues pertaining to cyanide fate, transport, treatment, and toxicity in water and soil as well as approaches currently used in risk assessment and management. They have developed a careful balance of depth and scope of coverage, providing current references that help readers learn more about topics of particular interest.

An array of technologies is available for the treatment of cyanide in surface water and groundwater, wastewaters, and contaminated soils and sludges. These technologies span the gamut of biological, chemical, electrolytic, physical, and thermal treatment processing. Presenting examples of applications of the technologies employed most commonly in municipal and industrial settings, the book is a useful reference tool for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and researchers in academia, industrial organizations, government, and engineering and science consulting firms.

Reviews

“Thirty-five different authors have contributed 27 chapters … coverage is comprehensive. Cyanide, its problems and solutions and thereto, is well discussed (and very well referenced, with approximately 60 references per chapter … It is well written, and to say the least, extremely comprehensive in the discussion of cyanide problems and solutions.”

— Gary F. Bennett, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, Ohio, in Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2006

Table of Contents

Introduction

Cyanide in History

Cyanide Chemical Structure

Cyanide and the Origin of Life

Ubiquity of Cyanide Compounds in Nature

Cyanide in Industry

Cyanide Releases to Water and Soil

Cyanide: Chemistry, Risk and Management

Cyanide Regulations

Cyanide Treatment Technology

Summary and Conclusions

References

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FORMS OF CYANIDE

Gaseous Forms of Cyanide

Aqueous Forms of Cyanide

Solid Forms of Cyanide

Summary and Conclusions

References

Natural Sources of Cyanide

Cyanide in Vascular Plants

Cyanide in Microorganisms

Cyanide in Animals

Cyanide in Forest Fires

Summary and Conclusions

References

Manufacture and the Use of Cyanide

Production of Cyanide Compounds

Incidental Industrial Production of Cyanide

Summary and Conclusions

References

PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL

Free Cyanide

Metal Cyanides: Aqueous Species

Metal-Cyanides: Solid Phase Compounds

Cyanate

Thiocyanate

Organocyanides

Summary and Conclusions

References

Biological Transformation of Cyanide in Water and Soil

Microbial Degradation

Fungal Degradation

Pathways for Fungal Degradation of Cyanogenic Compounds

Bacterial Assimilation

Fungal Assimilation

Botanical Transformation Processes

Environmental Impacts of Cyanide Assimilation

Summary and Conclusions

References

ANALYSIS OF CYANIDE IN WATER

Interferences and Pretreatments

Total Cyanide Measurement Techniques

Weak Metal-Cyanide Complexes

Metal Cyanide Complex Analysis by Liquid Chormatography

Free Cyanide Analysis

Thiocyanate and Cyanate Measurement Techniques

Cyanogen Halide Analysis

Organocyanide Measurement Techniques

Comparative Method Performance

Quality Control Criteria for Measurement of Cyanide in Water

Measuring Cyanides – A Regulatory Dilemma

Summary and Conclusions

References

Analysis of Cyanide in Solids and Semi-Solids

Direct Acid Distillation

Acid Solution Extraction

Neutral Solution Extraction

Alkaline Solution Extraction

Effect of Extraction Solution pH

Effect of Liquid-Solid Ratio

Effect of Extraction Time

Extraction of Plant and Animal Tissue, and other Semi-Solid Materials

Quality Control and Method Performance Evaluation

Summary and Conclusions

References

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SURFACE WATER

Synoptic Review of Cyanide Speciation and Toxicity

Primary Cyanide Fate-Determining Environmental Processes

Prediction and Assessment of Exposure to Cyanide

Summary and Conclusions

References

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATER

Distribution and Speciation of Cyanide at Industrial Sites

Impact of Site Geochemistry on Speciation and Distribution of Cyanide

Important Fate Processes for Cyanide

Transport of Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater at Contaminated Sites

Summary and Conclusions

References

ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Wastewater Discharges to Coastal Waters

Use of Cyanide for Capturing Live Reef Fish

Summary and Conclusions

References

Cyanide Cycle in Nature

Global Output of Cyanide

Physical, Chemical and Biological Processes that Influence Environmental Fate of Cyanide

Why Doesn’t Cyanide Build-up in Nature?

Cycling of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Nature

Combined Natural and Anthropogenic Cyanide Cycle

Summary and Conclusions

References

Human Toxicology of Cyanide

Exposure

Sites of Action

Symptoms and Signs Caused by Cyanide

Generation and Metabolism of Cyanide in Body Tissues

Mechanisms of Cyanide Toxicity

Cyanide Antidotes

Summary and Conclusions

References

AQUATIC TOXICITY OF CYANIDE

Mechanisms of Toxicity

Cyanide Bioavailability

Toxicity to Freshwater Biota

Toxicity to Marine Biota

Regulatory Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life

Summary and Conclusions

References

TOXICITY OF CYANIDE TO AQUATIC-DEPENDENT WILDLIFE

Distribution of Cyanide in the Environment

Exposure Pathways

Mechanisms of Toxicity

Literature Review Methods and Scope

Data Analysis

Discussion

Bioaccumulation of Cyanide

Toxicity Thresholds for Cyanide

Summary and Conclusions

References

HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE COMPOUNDS IN WATER AND SOIL

Environmental Concentrations and Exposure Pathways

Exposure Pathways

Toxicity Evaluation

Risk Characteristics

Recommendations

Summary and Conclusions

References

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL

Problem Formulation

Ecological Effects Assessment

Ecological Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Summary and Conclusions

References

REGULATION OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL

U.S. Regulations and Guidelines for Cyanide in Water

Regulatory Standards, Guidelines, and Criteria for Solid Matrices – Soil, Sediment and Process Residuals

International Regulatory Standards for Cyanide in Water and Soil

Technical/Regulatory Issues

Summary and Conclusions

References

Cyanide Treatment Technology:  Overview

Technology Selection

Summary and Conclusions

References

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE

Alkaline Chlorination Technologies

Oxidation Technologies with Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide

Photocatalytic Oxidation Technology

Inco’S Air/SO2 Process

Additional Technologies

Summary and Conclusions

References

SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE

Adsorption Technologies

Precipitation Technologies

Air Stripping

Summary and Conclusions

References

THERMAL AND HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE

High Temperature Alkaline Hydrolysis

High Temperature Alkaline Chlorination

Incineration/Thermal Treatment

Electrolytic Decomposition or Oxidation

Polysulfide Process

Wet Air Oxidation

Other Thermal Technologies

Thermal Technology Overview

Summary and Conclusions

References

MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE

Process Fundamentals

Wastewater Treatment Process Configurations

Full-Scale Application of Biological Treatment for Cyanide in Gold Mining

Biological Treatment of Solid Wastes Containing Cyanide

Summary and Conclusions

References

Cyanide Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation: An Emerging Biotechnology

Cyanide Contamination in the Environment

Feasibility of Cyanide Phytoremediation

Modeling Cyanide Uptake and Fate in Plants

Cyanide Phytoremediation: Limitations and Challenges

Possible Scenarios for Cyanide Phytoremediation

Regulatory Concerns

Summary and Conclusions

References

Management of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewaters

Sources of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent

Fate of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Generation of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Management Strategies for Low-Level Cyanide in Discharges from POTWs

Summary and Conclusions

References

MANAGEMENT OF CYANIDE IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTEWATERS

Management Strategy

Examples of Cyanide Management in Industrial Wastewaters

Summary and Conclusions

References

CYANIDE MANAGEMENT IN GROUNDWATER AND SOIL

Groundwater Management

Management of Cyanide-Impacted Soil and/or Residuals

Case Studies

Summary and Conclusions

References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply