Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies

1st Edition

By Ian Robert Falconer

CRC Press

296 pages | 37 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2004-12-20
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Description

The contamination of both drinking and recreational water supplies by cyanobacteria is increasingly a cause for concern worldwide. While contamination causes livestock deaths with relative frequency, acute poisoning is rare in humans. However, there is growing apprehension over the possible role of cylindrospermopsins and microcystins in gastrointestinal and liver cancer.

Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies provides an articulate account of the biology, chemistry, toxicology, and human health implications of cylindrospermopsins and microcystins, and their occurrence in water supplies. It discusses effective methods of prevention, mitigation, and remediation of cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs. The book presents novel and traditional approaches to water treatment for the elimination of these toxins. Written by a renowned expert who plays an instrumental role in revising the World Health Organization’s drinking water guidelines for cyanotoxins, the book uses the field’s most relevant findings and current examples to support a practical approach for assessing the potential risks and costs from toxic cyanobacterial blooms in water supplies.

Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies provides a lucid analysis of present and emerging issues in the ecology, safety, and treatment of drinking water for in environmental agencies, researchers, and policymakers. It is an authoritative resource for professionals in drinking and recreational water management, water supply utilities, analytical laboratories, and public health offices.

Reviews

“This book covers the biology, chemistry, toxicology, and human health implications of cylindro-spermopsins and microcystins, as well as their occurrence in water supplies. Written by an expert in the field, the book discusses effective methods of prevention, mitigation, and remediation of cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs and presents both new and traditional approaches for treating water to eliminate these toxins. …  ”

— In Journal of The Awwa, June 2007

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Introduction

References

 

TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR IDENTIFICATION

The Origins of Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacterial Organisms

Classification and Nomenclature

Molecular Taxonomy

References

TOXIN CHEMISTRY AND BIOSYNTHESIS

Chemistry of Cylindrospermopsins

Synthesis of Cylindrospermopsin

Biosynthesis of Cylindrospermopsin

Chemistry of Microcystins

Synthesis of Microcystins

Biosynthesis of Microcystins: Biochemical Approaches

Molecular Genetic Approaches

References

CYANOBACTERIAL ECOLOGY

Cyanobacteria in Freshwater

Light

Buoyancy

Nutrients: Phosphorus

Nitrogen

Distribution of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii(Nostocales)

Ecology of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

Cylindrospermopsin Production by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

Cylindrospermopsin Production by Other Cyanobacterial Species

Production of Other Toxins by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

Distribution of Microcystis aeruginosa

Distribution of Other Microcystin-Producing Species of Cyanobacteria

Ecology of Microcystis aeruginosa

Ecology of Planktothrix Species and Anabaena flos-aquae

Ecology of Microcystin Production

Nodularia spumigena and Nodularin Production

References

CYANOBACTERIAL POISONING OF LIVESTOCK AND PEOPLE

Livestock and Wildlife Poisoning by Cyanobacterial Toxins

Human Poisoning by Cyanobacterial Toxins

Waterborne Poisoning in Brazil

Gastrointestinal Illness Associated with Cyanobacteria in the US

Gastroenteritis Associated with Cyanobacteria in Africa

Liver Damage Associated with Microcystis aeruginosa in Australia

Recreational Poisoning in the UK and US

The Dialysis Tragedy in Brazil

Palm Island Poisoning by Cylindrospermopsin in Australia

Conclusions

References

CYLINDROSPERMOPSIN TOXICITY

Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin: Whole-Animal Studies

Oral Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin: Studies of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level

Cylindrospermopsin Uptake and Excretion

Mechanism of Cylindrospermopsin Toxicity

Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

Cytochrome P450 in Cylindrospermopsin Toxicity

DNA Damage, Chromosome Damage, and Carcinogenicity

Micronucleus Formation in the Presence of Cylindrospermopsin

Whole-Animal Carcinogenicity

Assessment of Carcinogenicity

Teratogenicity, Immunotoxicity, and Reproductive Injury

References

MICROCYSTIN TOXICITY

Acute Toxicity of Microcystin to Rodents

Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity

Determination of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level for Microcystin in Mice

Large-Animal Toxicity

Determination of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of Microcystin in Pigs

Toxicokinetics of Microcystin

Conjugation and Excretion of Microcystin

Studies with Isolated Hepatocytes

Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity

Microcystin and Phosphatase Inhibition

Cytoskeletal Effects

Nuclear Actions of Microcystin

Microcystin and Apoptosis

Cell-Cycle Effects of Microcystin

Tumor Promotion by Microcystin

Carcinogenesis, Liver Damage, and Cancer in China

Microcystin: Teratogenesis and Reproductive Toxicity

Conclusion

References

RISK AND SAFETY OF DRINKING WATER: ARE CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS IN DRINKING WATER A HEALTH RISK?

Risk Assessment and Legislation

What Is a Risk, and How Can It Be Assessed?

Risk Management

Risk and Chemical Safety in Drinking Water — Cyanobacterial Toxins as Toxic Chemicals

The Tolerable Daily Intake

Determination of a Guideline Value for Cylindrospermopsin

The Tolerable Daily Intake and Drinking Water Guideline Value for Microcystin

Cylindrospermopsins and Microcystins as Carcinogens?

Cylindrospermopsin — Is It a Carcinogen?

Microcystins and Nodularins — Are They Carcinogens?

Chronic Lifetime Dose, Intermittent Acute Doses, and Recreational Exposures

References

MONITORING OF RESERVOIRS FOR TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA AND ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENTS IN WATER

Monitoring Sites

Monitoring Frequency

Parameters for Monitoring — Predictive Parameters

Parameters for Monitoring — Identity and Number of Cyanobacterial Cells

Sampling

Cell Counting, Measurement, and Chlorophyll-a Analysis

Chlorophyll-a Analysis

Fluorescence Measurement of Cyanobacterial Concentration in Reservoirs

Monitoring by Genetic Methods

References

DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF CYLINDROSPERMOPSINS AND MICROCYSTINS

Toxin Concentration

In Vivo Rodent Toxicity Assays

Cylindrospermopsin Bioassay and Analysis

Cell-Based and Cell-Free Toxicity Measurement of Cylindrospermopsin

ELISA of Cylindrospermopsin

Instrument-Based Techniques for Cylindrospermopsin

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Microcystins and Nodularins: Bioassay and Analysis

Sample Collection and Handling for Microcystins

Bioassays for Microcystins and Nodularins

ELISA for Microcystins and Nodularins

Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Microcystins and Nodularins

HPLC for Microcystins and Nodularins

Microcystins and Nodularins in Tissue Samples

Analytical Problems and Challenges

References

PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND REMEDIATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS IN RESERVOIRS

Nutrient Reduction

Phosphorus Reduction

Catchment Management

Nitrogen Reduction

Reservoir Remediation

Destratification

Flow

Phosphorus Precipitation, Sediment Capping, and Dredging

Algicides

Biological Remediation

References

WATER TREATMENT

Processes for Removing Cyanobacterial Toxins from Drinking Water Supplies

Water Filtration, Coagulation, and Clarification

Activated Carbon

Ozonation and Chlorination

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

Slow Sand Filtration

Membrane Filtration

Conclusions

References

EMERGING ISSUES

Ecological Issues

Health Issues

Water Treatment

References

INDEX

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply