The discovery of the spatial structure of the double-stranded DNA molecule is one of the greatest achievements of science. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the DNA double helix is a distinguished symbol of modern biology.
Divided into three parts, DNA Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions and Nanoconstructions covers the information presently available on the condensation of various forms of DNA and describes practical applications of the peculiar properties of the liquid-crystalline particles.
- Part 1 describes the main methods used for condensation of linear high- and low-molecular mass DNA, including their complexes with polycations and circular DNA
- Part 2 compares the state and reactivity of double-stranded nucleic acid molecules fixed spatially in the liquid-crystalline as well as the same molecules under intracellular conditions
- Part 3 explains how the discovery of the fundamental principles underlying the formation of nucleic acid liquid-crystalline dispersion particles opens a gate for the operational use of these principles in the area of nanotechnology and biosensorics
With detailed coverage of DNA liquid crystals, this book provides an understanding of the information presently available on the condensation of various forms of DNA. Double-stranded nucleic acids, spatially organized in a liquid-crystalline structure, represent an important polyfunctional tool for molecular biology and nanobiotechnology. The possibility of programmed and controlled variations in the properties of these molecules and in the characteristics of their liquid-crystalline dispersions, provides wide options for the formation of biologically active three-dimensional structures with unique, widely applicable properties.
Table of Contents
THE LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE STATE OF DNA
The Condensed State of the High-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNA
The DNA Condensation and Aggregation
Polyphosphates as a Simplified DNA Model
Models of High-Molecular-Mass DNA Condensation in Water–Polymeric Solutions
Grosberg Model of High-Molecular-Mass DNA Condensation
Liquid-Crystalline Phases of the Low-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNA Molecules
Ordering of Low-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNAs
Brief Concept of Types of Liquid-Crystalline Phases
Liquid-Crystalline Phases of Low-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNA Molecules
Dispersions of Low-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNA Molecules
Low-Molecular-Mass Double-Stranded DNA Dispersions in Water–Polymer Solutions
Formation of DNA Dispersions in PEG-Containing Solutions
Circular Dichroism of Nucleic Acid Dispersions
Circular Dichroism as a Method of Proof of Cholesteric Packing of Nucleic Acid Molecules in Dispersion Particles and Analysis of Their Properties
Effect of Different Factors on Formation and Properties of CLCD Particles
Parameter of Nucleic Acid Molecule Order in CLCD Particles
Polymorphism of Liquid-Crystalline Structures Formed by (DNA-Polycation) Complexes
Some Peculiarities of Interaction of DNA Molecules with Polycations
Specificity of Chitosan Binding to DNA
Formation of Dispersions of (DNA–Chitosan) Complexes
CD Spectra of Dispersions Formed by (DNA–Chitosan) Complexes
X-Ray Parameters of Phases Formed by (DNA–Chitosan) Complexes
Dependence of Efficiency of CLCD Formation by (DNA–Chitosan) Complexes on Various Factors
Peculiarities of Interaction of Chitosan Molecules with Nucleic Acids
Attempt at a Theoretical Description of Interactions Occurring in the (DNA–Chitosan) Complexes and Resulting in the Formation of Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions with Different Optical Properties
Liquid-Crystalline State of DNA Circular Molecules
Phase Exclusion of Circular Molecules of Nucleic Acids
Formation of Dispersions From Circular Superhelical DNA
CD Spectra of Circular Superhelical DNA Dispersions Under Conditions That Modify Parameters of Their Secondary Structure
Packing Density and Rearrangement of the Spatial Structure of Superhelical DNA Molecules in LCD Particles
Topological Forms and Rearrangement of the Spatial Organization of Superhelical DNA Molecules in LCD Particles
DNA LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE FORMS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Liquid-Crystalline State of DNA in Biological Objects
DNA and Biological Objects
DNA Reactions under Conditions Causing Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions
Condensation of DNA under the Effect of Chitosan in Conditions Causing Molecular Crowding
Activity of Nucleolytic Enzymes Under Conditions of Molecular Crowding
Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes under Conditions of Molecular Crowding
DNA LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE DISPERSIONS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSENSORICS
Nanoconstructions Based on Nucleic Acid Molecules
The General Concept of Nanotechnology
Biological Molecules as a Background for Nanodesign
Two Strategies of Nanodesign Based on NA Molecules
Biosensors Based on Nucleic Acids
General Concept of Construction and Operation of Biosensors
Double-Stranded DNA Molecule as Polyfunctional Biosensing Unit
Content and Principle of Operation of an Optical Biosensor Based on DNA Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions
DNA CLCD Particles as Sensing Units
Sandwich-Type Biosensing Units Based on (DNA–Polycation) Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions
DNA Nanoconstruction as a Sensing Unit (New Type of Biodetectors)
Hydrogels Containing DNA NaCs as New "Film-Type Biodetectors
Yevdokimov Yuri Mikhailovich - Dr. Sci. (Chemistry), Professor: Head of the Condensed State of Nucleic Acids laboratory at Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Interests: chemistry of natural and physiologically relevant compounds (especially, nucleic acids), lyotropic liquid crystals of biopolymers, biosensors, and nanotechnology of nucleic acids.
Salyanov Victor Ivanovich - Ph.D. (Chemistry): Senior research scientist of the Condensed State of Nucleic Acids laboratory at Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Interests: chemistry of natural and physiologically relevant compounds, lyotropic liquid crystals of nucleic acids, and nanotechnology of nucleic acids.
Semenov Sergey Victorovich - Ph.D. (Physics): Senior research scientist at the Russian Research Center’s Kurchatov Institute
Interests: physics of liquid crystals, elementary particles physics and interaction of radiation with matter
Skuridin Sergey Gennadievich - Dr. Sci. (Molecular Biology): Leading research scientist of the Condensed State of Nucleic Acids laboratory at Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Interests: biochemistry of natural and physiologically relevant compounds, lyotropic liquid crystals of nucleic acids, biosensors, and nanotechnology of nucleic acids.