Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, 2nd edition: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, 2nd edition

2nd Edition

By Ljubomir Tanchev

CRC Press

1,116 pages

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pub: 2018-06-28
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Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, now in its second edition, provides a comprehensive and complete overview of all kinds of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures throughout the world.

The reader is guided through different aspects of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures in 35 chapters, which are subdivided in five themes:

I. Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – General;

II. Embankment dams;

III. Concrete dams;

IV. Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures;

V. Hydraulic schemes.

Subjects treated are general questions, design, construction, surveillance, maintenance and reconstruction of various embankment and concrete dams, hydromechanical equipment, spillway structures, bottom outlets, special hydraulic structures, composition of structures in river hydraulic schemes, reservoirs, environmental effects of river hydraulic schemes and reservoirs and environmental protection. Special attention is paid to advanced methods of static and dynamic analysis of embankment dams.

The wealth of experience gained by the author over the course of 35 years of research and practice is incorporated in this richly-illustrated, fully revised, updated and expanded edition. For the original Macedonian edition of Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, Ljubomir Tanchev was awarded the Goce Delchev Prize, the highest state prize for achievements in science in the Republic of Macedonia.

This work is intended for senior students, researchers and professionals in civil, hydraulic and environmental engineering and dam construction and exploitation.


Because of the simple and straightforward language used by the author throughout the text, reading this book is very pleasant. The book’s content covers a wide range of disciplines including the initial studies for implementation of the dam, design, construction and operation of hydraulic schemes.

The most important issues of design and construction of dams and associated structures are analysed and described in depth, giving the reader a complete overview on the subject. The presentation of the themes is done in a didactic way, and the book can be used as a manual for engineering of dams. […] All chapters are profusely documented with drawings, charts, and photos of recent examples of achievement. Figures and photographs are of high quality.

[…] In short, the updated edition is an indispensable tool for both advanced students and practising engineers of design and operation of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures.

Paulo Erbisti, Engineering Consultant, Brazil

The first edition of the Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures treatise […] was in my opinion one of the best ever books written on dams, providing a complete and comprehensive picture of dams and the appurtenant hydraulic structures which are essential for their safety. I am pleasantly surprised that after only 10 years the author brings to the dam community an even better book, the second revised and enriched edition.

The prime added value of this new edition is the extension of the embankment dam part, focusing on new achievements in concepts and on updated methods of analysis. Special attention is given to the advanced methods of static and dynamic analysis of embankment dams. All valuable papers in the field are reviewed and pertinent syntheses are included in the book. The second major contribution of the new edition is the chapters concerning the new types of concrete dams - roller-compacted concrete gravity dams, hardfill dams and roller-compacted concrete arch dams.

I strongly recommend the book to professionals. It is also an excellent textbook for (graduate) students in civil, hydraulic and environmental engineering.

Prof. Dan Stematiu, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

The reader will find that the book provides a wealth of examples of all kinds of existing dam projects worldwide. By providing a complete and comprehensive picture of dams the author´s work ensures that this book will be a frequently consulted reference for those having frontline experience as dam construction engineers, planners, superintendents, designers and graduate students to increase their knowledge and expertise in this field.

Fidencio Mendez, Consulting Engineer, Guadalajara, Mexico

The enhanced 2nd edition of the reference book by L. Tancev on Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures has recently been published. This is not only an important reference book for dam engineers but all engineers, students and interested people, who want to understand the technical aspects of dams. The author has discussed the various aspects of dam engineering and the possible solutions based on a large number of case studies rather than focusing on pure analysis aspects. It is obvious that before any analysis can be done, the problem and the possible solutions must be understood first and it has to be demonstrated that the solutions are feasible, which is shown by the examples given. […] The author has also shown that many solutions for dams are possible depending on the topography and geology as well as on the flood and seismic hazards at the site. Therefore all dams are prototypes and none is like the other.

The emphasis of the book is clearly on dams. However, appurtenant hydraulic structures such as spillways, surface and high head gates, bottom outlets, run-of-river power plants, locks, and pump storage plants are also discussed.

This book provides an overview on both the state-of-practice and state-of-the-art in dam engineering and is written in a way that it can easily be understood by non-experts as well. The book is very useful and is highly recommended.

Dr. Martin Wieland, Chairman Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design (International Commission on Large Dams), c/o Poyry Switzerland Ltd., Zurich/Switzerland

Table of Contents


Preface to the first edition


Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – General

1 Utilization of water resources by means of hydraulic structures

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Hydraulic structures (definition, classification)

1.3 General features of hydraulic structures

1.4 Intent of dams. Elements of a dam and a reservoir

1.5 Appurtenant hydraulic structures

1.6 Short review of the historical development of hydraulic structures

2 Foundations of dams

2.1 Foundations for hydraulic structures in general

2.2 Rock foundations

2.3 Semi-rock and soil foundations

2.4 Requirements for the foundation

2.5 Investigation works regarding dam foundations

2.5.1 Indirect investigation methods

2.5.2 Direct investigation methods

2.5.3 Sampling

2.5.4 Testing

2.6 Improvement of foundations

3 Seepage through dams

3.1 Action of seepage flow

3.2 Mechanical action of seepage flow on the earth’s skeleton

3.3 Seepage resistance of earth foundations and structures

3.4 Theoretical aspects of seepage

3.5 Practical solution of the problem of seepage

3.6 Seepage in anisotropic soil conditions

3.7 Seepage in non-homogeneous soil conditions

3.8 Seepage of water through rock foundations

3.9 Lateral seepage

3.10 Seepage through the body of concrete dams

4 Forces and loadings on dams

4.1 Forces and loadings on dams in general

4.2 Forces from hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure

4.3 Influence of cavitation and aeration on hydraulic structures

4.4 Influence from waves

4.5 Influence of ice and water sediment

4.6 Seismic forces

4.7 Temperature effects

4.7.1 Temperature effects on embankment dams

4.7.2 Temperature effects on concrete structures

5 Designing hydraulic structures

5.1 Basic stages in the process of the creation and use of hydraulic structures

5.2 Investigation for design and construction of hydraulic structures

5.3 Contents of the hydraulic design and design phases

5.4 Project management and the role of legislation


Embankment dams

6 Embankment dams – general

6.1 Introduction, terminology, and classification

6.2 Historical development of embankment dams

6.3 Dimensions of the basic elements of embankment dams

6.4 Choice of the dam site

6.5 Materials for construction of embankment dams

6.6 Choice of type of embankment dam

6.7 Tailings dams

6.7.1 Definition and general features

6.7.2 Classification of tailings dams

6.7.3 Methods of construction of tailings dams

7 Seepage through embankment dams

7.1 Kinds of seepage through the embankment dam body

7.2 Seepage line and hydrodynamic net in embankment dams

7.3 Measures against the harmful effect of seepage

7.3.1 Action against local seepage rising

7.3.2 Action against internal erosion

7.4 Calculations of the casual seepage strength of earthfill dams

8 Static stability of embankment dams

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Classical methods

8.2.1 Method of slices

8.2.2 Wedge method

8.2.3 States in which stability of embankment dams is examined

8.2.4 Stability of rockfill dams

8.3 Advanced methods

8.3.1 Application of the Finite Element Method

8.3.2 Specific properties of the application of the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analysis of embankment dams

8.3.3 Choice of constitutive law

8.3.4 Simulation for dam construction in layers

8.3.5 Simulation for filling the reservoir and the effect of water

8.3.6 Collapse settlement

8.3.7 Simulation of behaviour at the interfaces of different materials

8.3.8 Analysis of consolidation

8.3.9 Creep of materials in the body of embankment dams

8.3.10 Three-dimensional analysis

9 Dynamic stability of embankment dams

9.1 Effect of earthquakes on embankment dams

9.2 Assessment of design earthquake

9.2.1 Strength, attenuation, and amplification of earthquakes

9.2.2 Design earthquake

9.3 Liquefaction

9.4 Analysis of stability and deformations in embankment dams induced by earthquakes

9.4.1 Pseudo-static method

9.4.2 Pseudo-static methods with a non-uniform coefficient of acceleration

9.4.3 Equivalent linear method

9.4.4 Pure nonlinear response method

9.5 Case studies of recent actual events

9.5.1 Case study of Aratozawa dam (Japan, 2008)

9.5.2 Case study of Zipingpu dam (China, 2008)

10 Earthfill dams

10.1 Classification and construction of earthfill dams

10.2 Structural details for earthfill dams

10.2.1 Slope protection

10.2.2 Water-impermeable elements

10.2.3 Drainages

10.3 Preparation of the foundation and the joint between earthfill dams and the foundation

10.3.1 Preparation of the general foundation

10.3.2 Preparation of the foundation when using a dam cutoff trench

10.3.3 Joint of the earthfill dam and the foundation

11 Earth–rock dams

11.1 Construction of earth–rock dams

11.2 Earth–rock dams with vertical core

11.3 Earth–rock dams with a sloping core

11.4 Earth–rock dams of ‘soft’ rocks

11.5 Fissures in the core of earth–rock dams

11.5.1 Kinds of fissures and causes for their occurrence

11.5.2 Measures for preventing the occurrence of fissures

11.6 Designing earth–rock dams in seismically active areas

12 Rockfill dams with reinforced concrete facing

12.1 Definition, field of application and construction

12.2 Modern dams with reinforced concrete facing

12.2.1 Rockfill dam body

12.2.2 Concrete plinth

12.2.3 Concrete face slabs

12.2.4 Joints for reinforced concrete facing slabs

12.2.5 Perimeter joint

12.2.6 Parapet wall and camber

12.3 Construction of the reinforced concrete facing

12.4 Examples of modern CFRDs

12.4.1 Examples from the period 1971–1980

12.4.2 Examples from the period 1982–2000

12.4.3 First decade of XXI century

12.5 Concrete facings of non-conventional concrete

13 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete and other types of facings

13.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete facing

13.1.1 General characteristics

13.1.2 Composition and characteristics of hydraulic asphaltic concrete

13.1.3 Construction of the asphaltic concrete facings

13.1.4 Joint of the lining with a gallery or concrete cutoff in dam’s toe

13.1.5 Joint of the facing with dam’s crest

13.2 Rockfill dams with steel facing

13.3 Rockfill dams with facing of geomembrane

13.3.1 General

13.3.2 Examples of rockfill dams with geomembrane facing

14 Rockfill dams with internal non-earth core

14.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete core

14.1.1 Function, conditions of work and materials

14.1.2 Structure of the asphaltic concrete cores

14.1.3 Recent examples

14.1.4 Joint of asphaltic concrete core with the foundation and lateral concrete structures

14.2 Other types of non-earth cores

14.2.1 Concrete core walls

14.2.2 Grout and plastic concrete walls (cores)

14.3 Stability of earth-rock dams with asphaltic concrete core

15 Monitoring and surveillance of embankment dams

15.1 Task and purpose of monitoring

15.2 Monitoring of pore pressure and seepage

15.2.1 Hydraulic piezometers

15.2.2 Electric piezometers

15.2.3 Monitoring of seepage

15.3 Monitoring of displacements

15.3.1 Measurement of displacements at the surface of the dam

15.3.2 Measuring displacements in the interior of the dam

15.4 Measurements of stresses

15.5 Seismic measurements

15.6 General principles on the selection and positioning layout of measuring instruments


Concrete dams

16 Gravity dams on rock foundations

16.1 Gravity dams in general

16.2 Mass concrete for dams

16.2.1 General

16.2.2 Constituent elements of mass concrete

16.2.3 Parameters of concrete mixture

16.2.4 Fabrication and placing of concrete

16.3 Cross-section of gravity dams

16.3.1 Cross-sections in general

16.3.2 Theoretical cross-section

16.3.3 Practical cross-section

16.4 Dimensioning of concrete gravity dams

16.4.1 Elementary methods

16.4.2 Modern methods

16.5 Determination of stresses

16.5.1 Determination of stresses by the gravitational method

16.5.2 Calculation of stresses by using the theory of elasticity

16.5.3 Calculation of stresses by using the Finite Element Method

16.5.4 Influence of temperature changes, shrinkage and expansion of concrete on stresses in dams

16.5.5 Permissible stresses and cracks

16.6 General structural features of gravity dams

16.7 Stability of gravity dams on rock foundation

16.7.1 Dam sliding and shearing across foundation

16.8 Hollow gravity dams

17 Gravity dams on soil foundations

17.1 Fundamentals of gravity dams on soil foundation

17.2 Schemes for the underground contour of the dam

17.3 Determination of basic dimensions of underground contour

17.4 Construction of elements of the underground contour

17.5 Construction of dam body

17.6 Dimensioning and stability of gravity dams on soil foundation

18 Roller-compacted concrete gravity dams

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Characteristics of roller-compacted concrete

18.2.1 Roller-compacted concrete mixture, placement and properties

18.2.2 Lift joint bond

18.3 Types of roller-compacted concrete

18.4 Trends in development of dams made of roller-compacted concrete

18.5 Improving the water-impermeability of dams made of roller-compacted concrete

18.6 Cost of dams made of roller-compacted concrete

18.7 Examples of dams made of roller-compacted concrete

18.7.1 Examples of the early period of construction of RCC dams

18.7.2 Examples from recent practice

18.7.3 RCC dam construction practice in China

18.7.4 RCC dam construction practice in Spain

18.7.5 RCC dam construction practice in Japan

18.8 Hardfill dams

18.8.1 Basic idea and concept

18.8.2 Hardfill as a dam construction material

18.8.3 Design of hardfill dams

18.8.4 Main features and field of application

19 Buttress dams

19.1 Definition, classification, and general conceptions

19.2 Massive-head buttress dams

19.3 Flat-slab buttress dams

19.4 Multiple-arch buttress dams

19.5 Conditions for application of buttress dams

20 Arch dams

20.1 Arch dams in general – classification

20.2 Development of arch dams through the centuries

20.3 Methods of designing arch dams

20.3.1 Basic design

20.3.2 Arch dams with double curvature

20.3.3 Form of arches in plan and adaptation to ground conditions

20.4 Structural details of arch dams

20.5 Roller-compacted concrete arch dams

20.6 Static analysis of arch dams

20.6.1 Method of independent arches

20.6.2 Method of central cantilever

20.6.3 The trial-load method

20.6.4 The Finite Element Method

20.6.5 The experimental method

21 Dynamic stability of concrete dams

21.1 Earthquake effects on concrete dams

21.2 Methods for dynamic analysis of concrete dams

21.2.1 Linear analysis and response of the structure

21.2.2 Nonlinear analysis and the response of the dam

21.2.3 Dynamic analysis of RCC and hardfill dams

21.3 Knowledge gained from practice and experiments

21.3.1 Knowledge gained from case studies

21.3.2 Laboratory and field experiments

21.4 Recommendation for design and construction of concrete dams in seismically active areas

22 Monitoring and surveillance of concrete dams

22.1 Monitoring, surveillance, and instrumentation of concrete dams – general

22.2 Monitoring by precise survey methods

22.3 Surveillance with embedded instruments

22.4 Automatization and computerization of monitoring


Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures

23 Mechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general

23.1 Hydromechanical equipment – general

23.1.1 Introduction

23.1.2 Classification of gates and valves

23.1.3 Forces acting on gates and valves

23.2 Mechanisms for lifting and lowering of the gates and valves. Service bridges

23.3 Installation and service of gates and valves

23.4 Appurtenant hydraulic structures

23.4.1 Definition, function and capacity

23.4.2 Classification of spillways and bottom outlets

23.5 Evacuation of overflowing waters via a chute spillway

23.6 Energy dissipation of the spillway jet

23.7 Selection of type of spillway structure

24 Surface (crest) gates

24.1 Basic schemes of surface (crest) gates

24.2 Surface (crest) gates transferring water pressure to side walls or piers

24.2.1 Ordinary plain metal gates

24.2.2 Special plain gates

24.2.3 Stop-log gates

24.2.4 Radial gates

24.2.5 Roller gates

24.3 Surface (crest) gates transferring the water pressure to the gate sill

24.3.1 Sector and drum gates

24.3.2 Flap gates

24.3.3 Bear-trap gates

24.3.4 Inflatable gates

25 High-head gates and valves

25.1 General characteristics – classification

25.2 High-head gates transferring pressure to the structure directly through their supports

25.2.1 Plain high-head gates

25.2.2 Radial (tainter) high-head gates

25.2.3 Diaphragm gate

25.3 Valves transferring the pressure through the shell encasing the valve

25.3.1 Waterworks valve types

25.3.2 Disc-like or butterfly valves

25.3.3 Cone valve

25.3.4 Needle valves and spherical valves

25.4 Cylindrical balanced high-head valves

26 Spillways passing through the dam’s body

26.1 Crest spillways

26.1.1 Crest spillways at concrete dams

26.1.2 Crest spillways at embankment dams

26.2 High-head spillway structures

27 Spillways outside the dam’s body

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Overfall (ogee) spillway structure

27.3 Side-channel spillway

27.4 Shaft (morning glory) spillway

27.4.1 Shaft spillway with circular funnel crest

27.4.2 Special types of shaft spillways

27.4.3 Tower spillway

27.5 Labyrinth spillway

27.6 Siphon spillways

28 Bottom outlet works

28.1 Basic assumptions on designing bottom outlet works

28.2 Bottom outlet works in concrete dams

28.3 Bottom outlet works in embankment dams

29 Special hydraulic structures

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Transport structures

29.3 Hydraulic structures for the admission and protection of fish

30 River diversion during the construction of the hydraulic scheme

30.1 River diversion during the construction of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general

30.2 Construction of the structures without river diversion from the parent river channel

30.2.1 Method with damming of the construction (foundation) pit

30.2.2 Method without damming of the construction pit

30.3 Construction of the structures with river diversion from the river channel

30.3.1 Types of cofferdams


Hydraulic schemes

31 Composition of structures in river hydraulic schemes

31.1 Definition and classification of hydraulic schemes

31.2 General conditions and principles for the composition of hydraulic schemes

31.3 Characteristics of river hydraulic schemes for different water economy branches

31.4 Aesthetic shaping of hydraulic schemes

31.5 River hydraulic schemes without pressure head

31.6 Low-head hydraulic schemes

31.7 Medium-head river hydraulic schemes

32 High-head river hydraulic schemes

32.1 High-head river hydraulic schemes on mountain rivers (type I)

32.2 High-head hydraulic schemes on middle and low parts of rivers

32.3 Pumped-storage hydraulic scheme

33 Reservoirs

33.1 Introduction

33.2 Formation and safety of reservoirs

33.2.1 Stability of reservoir banks

33.2.2 Water-impermeability of the reservoir

33.2.3 Seismicity of the ground in the zone of the reservoir

33.2.4 Water absorption of the ground in the zone of the reservoir

33.2.5 Evaporation

33.2.6 Sediment accumulation

33.3 Resettlement of population and relocation of structures

33.4 Sports and recreational facilities

34 Negative effects of hydraulic schemes and environmental protection

34.1 Types of negative effects on the environment

34.1.1 Changing the land into the area of the reservoir

34.1.2 Change of the flow downstream of the dam

34.1.3 Damming the migration paths of fish and wild animals

34.1.4 Change in the surrounding landscape and the microclimate

34.2 Social and ecological monitoring

34.3 Environmental protection – selection of a solution with minimum negative effects on the environment

35 Restoration and reconstruction of hydraulic schemes

35.1 Need for restoration and reconstruction

35.2 Restoration of dams and hydraulic schemes

35.3 Reconstruction of hydraulic schemes


Subject index

Index of dams

About the Author

Ljubomir Tanchev was born in 1945 in Prilep (Republic of Macedonia). He moved to Skopje in 1950 where he finished the primary and secondary school and graduated in Civil Engineering from the Sts Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje. He obtained his M.Sc. in 1980 and was awarded his Ph.D. on the subject of Numerical analysis of embankment dams from the same university in 1987. In 1978/79 he completed a post-graduate study at IHE in Delft, The Netherlands.

He began his career working in the laboratory for testing of materials of the CC "Mavrovo" (Skopje) as a research engineer between 1972 and 1977. Then he joined the Sts Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, as assistant. In 1988 he was appointed Assistant Professor, in 1992 Associate Professor and in 1996 Professor, covering the topics of Dams and Hydraulic Structures. He has been Head of the Department of Hydraulic Structures, vice-Dean and from October 1999 till October 2003 Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Sts Cyril and Methodius University. He retired in October 2010, but is still active in various projects. He was president of the Macedonian Committee on Large Dams (a member of ICOLD) from May 2004 till June 2013.

Over his 40 years of practice, Professor Tanchev has been involved in many hydraulic engineering projects as a designer, consultant, and supervisor. He has published more than 50 scientific works and he is the author of three books published in Macedonian: Static analysis of embankment dams (1989), Hydraulic structures (1992) and Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures (1999). For the latter book, Prof. Tanchev was awarded the Goce Delchev Prize, the highest state prize for achievement in the sciences. The first English edition of Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures was published in 2005 by CRC Press / Balkema.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science