2nd Edition

Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, 2nd edition

By Ljubomir Tanchev Copyright 2014
    1116 Pages
    by CRC Press

    1116 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, now in its second edition, provides a comprehensive and complete overview of all kinds of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures throughout the world.

    The reader is guided through different aspects of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures in 35 chapters, which are subdivided in five themes:
    I. Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – General;
    II. Embankment dams;
    III. Concrete dams;
    IV. Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures;
    V. Hydraulic schemes.

    Subjects treated are general questions, design, construction, surveillance, maintenance and reconstruction of various embankment and concrete dams, hydromechanical equipment, spillway structures, bottom outlets, special hydraulic structures, composition of structures in river hydraulic schemes, reservoirs, environmental effects of river hydraulic schemes and reservoirs and environmental protection. Special attention is paid to advanced methods of static and dynamic analysis of embankment dams.

    The wealth of experience gained by the author over the course of 35 years of research and practice is incorporated in this richly-illustrated, fully revised, updated and expanded edition. For the original Macedonian edition of Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, Ljubomir Tanchev was awarded the Goce Delchev Prize, the highest state prize for achievements in science in the Republic of Macedonia.

    This work is intended for senior students, researchers and professionals in civil, hydraulic and environmental engineering and dam construction and exploitation.

    Preface to the first edition

    PART 1
    Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – General

    1 Utilization of water resources by means of hydraulic structures
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Hydraulic structures (definition, classification)
    1.3 General features of hydraulic structures
    1.4 Intent of dams. Elements of a dam and a reservoir
    1.5 Appurtenant hydraulic structures
    1.6 Short review of the historical development of hydraulic structures

    2 Foundations of dams
    2.1 Foundations for hydraulic structures in general
    2.2 Rock foundations
    2.3 Semi-rock and soil foundations
    2.4 Requirements for the foundation
    2.5 Investigation works regarding dam foundations
    2.5.1 Indirect investigation methods
    2.5.2 Direct investigation methods
    2.5.3 Sampling
    2.5.4 Testing
    2.6 Improvement of foundations

    3 Seepage through dams
    3.1 Action of seepage flow
    3.2 Mechanical action of seepage flow on the earth’s skeleton
    3.3 Seepage resistance of earth foundations and structures
    3.4 Theoretical aspects of seepage
    3.5 Practical solution of the problem of seepage
    3.6 Seepage in anisotropic soil conditions
    3.7 Seepage in non-homogeneous soil conditions
    3.8 Seepage of water through rock foundations
    3.9 Lateral seepage
    3.10 Seepage through the body of concrete dams

    4 Forces and loadings on dams
    4.1 Forces and loadings on dams in general
    4.2 Forces from hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure
    4.3 Influence of cavitation and aeration on hydraulic structures
    4.4 Influence from waves
    4.5 Influence of ice and water sediment
    4.6 Seismic forces
    4.7 Temperature effects
    4.7.1 Temperature effects on embankment dams
    4.7.2 Temperature effects on concrete structures

    5 Designing hydraulic structures
    5.1 Basic stages in the process of the creation and use of hydraulic structures
    5.2 Investigation for design and construction of hydraulic structures
    5.3 Contents of the hydraulic design and design phases
    5.4 Project management and the role of legislation

    PART 2
    Embankment dams

    6 Embankment dams – general
    6.1 Introduction, terminology, and classification
    6.2 Historical development of embankment dams
    6.3 Dimensions of the basic elements of embankment dams
    6.4 Choice of the dam site
    6.5 Materials for construction of embankment dams
    6.6 Choice of type of embankment dam
    6.7 Tailings dams
    6.7.1 Definition and general features
    6.7.2 Classification of tailings dams
    6.7.3 Methods of construction of tailings dams

    7 Seepage through embankment dams
    7.1 Kinds of seepage through the embankment dam body
    7.2 Seepage line and hydrodynamic net in embankment dams
    7.3 Measures against the harmful effect of seepage
    7.3.1 Action against local seepage rising
    7.3.2 Action against internal erosion
    7.4 Calculations of the casual seepage strength of earthfill dams

    8 Static stability of embankment dams
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Classical methods
    8.2.1 Method of slices
    8.2.2 Wedge method
    8.2.3 States in which stability of embankment dams is examined
    8.2.4 Stability of rockfill dams
    8.3 Advanced methods
    8.3.1 Application of the Finite Element Method
    8.3.2 Specific properties of the application of the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analysis of embankment dams
    8.3.3 Choice of constitutive law
    8.3.4 Simulation for dam construction in layers
    8.3.5 Simulation for filling the reservoir and the effect of water
    8.3.6 Collapse settlement
    8.3.7 Simulation of behaviour at the interfaces of different materials
    8.3.8 Analysis of consolidation
    8.3.9 Creep of materials in the body of embankment dams
    8.3.10 Three-dimensional analysis

    9 Dynamic stability of embankment dams
    9.1 Effect of earthquakes on embankment dams
    9.2 Assessment of design earthquake
    9.2.1 Strength, attenuation, and amplification of earthquakes
    9.2.2 Design earthquake
    9.3 Liquefaction
    9.4 Analysis of stability and deformations in embankment dams induced by earthquakes
    9.4.1 Pseudo-static method
    9.4.2 Pseudo-static methods with a non-uniform coefficient of acceleration
    9.4.3 Equivalent linear method
    9.4.4 Pure nonlinear response method
    9.5 Case studies of recent actual events
    9.5.1 Case study of Aratozawa dam (Japan, 2008)
    9.5.2 Case study of Zipingpu dam (China, 2008)

    10 Earthfill dams
    10.1 Classification and construction of earthfill dams
    10.2 Structural details for earthfill dams
    10.2.1 Slope protection
    10.2.2 Water-impermeable elements
    10.2.3 Drainages
    10.3 Preparation of the foundation and the joint between earthfill dams and the foundation
    10.3.1 Preparation of the general foundation
    10.3.2 Preparation of the foundation when using a dam cutoff trench
    10.3.3 Joint of the earthfill dam and the foundation

    11 Earth–rock dams
    11.1 Construction of earth–rock dams
    11.2 Earth–rock dams with vertical core
    11.3 Earth–rock dams with a sloping core
    11.4 Earth–rock dams of ‘soft’ rocks
    11.5 Fissures in the core of earth–rock dams
    11.5.1 Kinds of fissures and causes for their occurrence
    11.5.2 Measures for preventing the occurrence of fissures
    11.6 Designing earth–rock dams in seismically active areas

    12 Rockfill dams with reinforced concrete facing
    12.1 Definition, field of application and construction
    12.2 Modern dams with reinforced concrete facing
    12.2.1 Rockfill dam body
    12.2.2 Concrete plinth
    12.2.3 Concrete face slabs
    12.2.4 Joints for reinforced concrete facing slabs
    12.2.5 Perimeter joint
    12.2.6 Parapet wall and camber
    12.3 Construction of the reinforced concrete facing
    12.4 Examples of modern CFRDs
    12.4.1 Examples from the period 1971–1980
    12.4.2 Examples from the period 1982–2000
    12.4.3 First decade of XXI century
    12.5 Concrete facings of non-conventional concrete

    13 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete and other types of facings
    13.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete facing
    13.1.1 General characteristics
    13.1.2 Composition and characteristics of hydraulic asphaltic concrete
    13.1.3 Construction of the asphaltic concrete facings
    13.1.4 Joint of the lining with a gallery or concrete cutoff in dam’s toe
    13.1.5 Joint of the facing with dam’s crest
    13.2 Rockfill dams with steel facing
    13.3 Rockfill dams with facing of geomembrane
    13.3.1 General
    13.3.2 Examples of rockfill dams with geomembrane facing

    14 Rockfill dams with internal non-earth core
    14.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete core
    14.1.1 Function, conditions of work and materials
    14.1.2 Structure of the asphaltic concrete cores
    14.1.3 Recent examples
    14.1.4 Joint of asphaltic concrete core with the foundation and lateral concrete structures
    14.2 Other types of non-earth cores
    14.2.1 Concrete core walls
    14.2.2 Grout and plastic concrete walls (cores)
    14.3 Stability of earth-rock dams with asphaltic concrete core

    15 Monitoring and surveillance of embankment dams
    15.1 Task and purpose of monitoring
    15.2 Monitoring of pore pressure and seepage
    15.2.1 Hydraulic piezometers
    15.2.2 Electric piezometers
    15.2.3 Monitoring of seepage
    15.3 Monitoring of displacements
    15.3.1 Measurement of displacements at the surface of the dam
    15.3.2 Measuring displacements in the interior of the dam
    15.4 Measurements of stresses
    15.5 Seismic measurements
    15.6 General principles on the selection and positioning layout of measuring instruments

    PART 3
    Concrete dams

    16 Gravity dams on rock foundations
    16.1 Gravity dams in general
    16.2 Mass concrete for dams
    16.2.1 General
    16.2.2 Constituent elements of mass concrete
    16.2.3 Parameters of concrete mixture
    16.2.4 Fabrication and placing of concrete
    16.3 Cross-section of gravity dams
    16.3.1 Cross-sections in general
    16.3.2 Theoretical cross-section
    16.3.3 Practical cross-section
    16.4 Dimensioning of concrete gravity dams
    16.4.1 Elementary methods
    16.4.2 Modern methods
    16.5 Determination of stresses
    16.5.1 Determination of stresses by the gravitational method
    16.5.2 Calculation of stresses by using the theory of elasticity
    16.5.3 Calculation of stresses by using the Finite Element Method
    16.5.4 Influence of temperature changes, shrinkage and expansion of concrete on stresses in dams
    16.5.5 Permissible stresses and cracks
    16.6 General structural features of gravity dams
    16.7 Stability of gravity dams on rock foundation
    16.7.1 Dam sliding and shearing across foundation
    16.8 Hollow gravity dams

    17 Gravity dams on soil foundations
    17.1 Fundamentals of gravity dams on soil foundation
    17.2 Schemes for the underground contour of the dam
    17.3 Determination of basic dimensions of underground contour
    17.4 Construction of elements of the underground contour
    17.5 Construction of dam body
    17.6 Dimensioning and stability of gravity dams on soil foundation

    18 Roller-compacted concrete gravity dams
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Characteristics of roller-compacted concrete
    18.2.1 Roller-compacted concrete mixture, placement and properties
    18.2.2 Lift joint bond
    18.3 Types of roller-compacted concrete
    18.4 Trends in development of dams made of roller-compacted concrete
    18.5 Improving the water-impermeability of dams made of roller-compacted concrete
    18.6 Cost of dams made of roller-compacted concrete
    18.7 Examples of dams made of roller-compacted concrete
    18.7.1 Examples of the early period of construction of RCC dams
    18.7.2 Examples from recent practice
    18.7.3 RCC dam construction practice in China
    18.7.4 RCC dam construction practice in Spain
    18.7.5 RCC dam construction practice in Japan
    18.8 Hardfill dams
    18.8.1 Basic idea and concept
    18.8.2 Hardfill as a dam construction material
    18.8.3 Design of hardfill dams
    18.8.4 Main features and field of application

    19 Buttress dams
    19.1 Definition, classification, and general conceptions
    19.2 Massive-head buttress dams
    19.3 Flat-slab buttress dams
    19.4 Multiple-arch buttress dams
    19.5 Conditions for application of buttress dams

    20 Arch dams
    20.1 Arch dams in general – classification
    20.2 Development of arch dams through the centuries
    20.3 Methods of designing arch dams
    20.3.1 Basic design
    20.3.2 Arch dams with double curvature
    20.3.3 Form of arches in plan and adaptation to ground conditions
    20.4 Structural details of arch dams
    20.5 Roller-compacted concrete arch dams
    20.6 Static analysis of arch dams
    20.6.1 Method of independent arches
    20.6.2 Method of central cantilever
    20.6.3 The trial-load method
    20.6.4 The Finite Element Method
    20.6.5 The experimental method

    21 Dynamic stability of concrete dams
    21.1 Earthquake effects on concrete dams
    21.2 Methods for dynamic analysis of concrete dams
    21.2.1 Linear analysis and response of the structure
    21.2.2 Nonlinear analysis and the response of the dam
    21.2.3 Dynamic analysis of RCC and hardfill dams
    21.3 Knowledge gained from practice and experiments
    21.3.1 Knowledge gained from case studies
    21.3.2 Laboratory and field experiments
    21.4 Recommendation for design and construction of concrete dams in seismically active areas

    22 Monitoring and surveillance of concrete dams
    22.1 Monitoring, surveillance, and instrumentation of concrete dams – general
    22.2 Monitoring by precise survey methods
    22.3 Surveillance with embedded instruments
    22.4 Automatization and computerization of monitoring

    PART 4
    Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures

    23 Mechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general
    23.1 Hydromechanical equipment – general
    23.1.1 Introduction
    23.1.2 Classification of gates and valves
    23.1.3 Forces acting on gates and valves
    23.2 Mechanisms for lifting and lowering of the gates and valves. Service bridges
    23.3 Installation and service of gates and valves
    23.4 Appurtenant hydraulic structures
    23.4.1 Definition, function and capacity
    23.4.2 Classification of spillways and bottom outlets
    23.5 Evacuation of overflowing waters via a chute spillway
    23.6 Energy dissipation of the spillway jet
    23.7 Selection of type of spillway structure

    24 Surface (crest) gates
    24.1 Basic schemes of surface (crest) gates
    24.2 Surface (crest) gates transferring water pressure to side walls or piers
    24.2.1 Ordinary plain metal gates
    24.2.2 Special plain gates
    24.2.3 Stop-log gates
    24.2.4 Radial gates
    24.2.5 Roller gates
    24.3 Surface (crest) gates transferring the water pressure to the gate sill
    24.3.1 Sector and drum gates
    24.3.2 Flap gates
    24.3.3 Bear-trap gates
    24.3.4 Inflatable gates

    25 High-head gates and valves
    25.1 General characteristics – classification
    25.2 High-head gates transferring pressure to the structure directly through their supports
    25.2.1 Plain high-head gates
    25.2.2 Radial (tainter) high-head gates
    25.2.3 Diaphragm gate
    25.3 Valves transferring the pressure through the shell encasing the valve
    25.3.1 Waterworks valve types
    25.3.2 Disc-like or butterfly valves
    25.3.3 Cone valve
    25.3.4 Needle valves and spherical valves
    25.4 Cylindrical balanced high-head valves

    26 Spillways passing through the dam’s body
    26.1 Crest spillways
    26.1.1 Crest spillways at concrete dams
    26.1.2 Crest spillways at embankment dams
    26.2 High-head spillway structures

    27 Spillways outside the dam’s body
    27.1 Introduction
    27.2 Overfall (ogee) spillway structure
    27.3 Side-channel spillway
    27.4 Shaft (morning glory) spillway
    27.4.1 Shaft spillway with circular funnel crest
    27.4.2 Special types of shaft spillways
    27.4.3 Tower spillway
    27.5 Labyrinth spillway
    27.6 Siphon spillways

    28 Bottom outlet works
    28.1 Basic assumptions on designing bottom outlet works
    28.2 Bottom outlet works in concrete dams
    28.3 Bottom outlet works in embankment dams

    29 Special hydraulic structures
    29.1 Introduction
    29.2 Transport structures
    29.3 Hydraulic structures for the admission and protection of fish

    30 River diversion during the construction of the hydraulic scheme
    30.1 River diversion during the construction of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general
    30.2 Construction of the structures without river diversion from the parent river channel
    30.2.1 Method with damming of the construction (foundation) pit
    30.2.2 Method without damming of the construction pit
    30.3 Construction of the structures with river diversion from the river channel
    30.3.1 Types of cofferdams

    PART 5
    Hydraulic schemes

    31 Composition of structures in river hydraulic schemes
    31.1 Definition and classification of hydraulic schemes
    31.2 General conditions and principles for the composition of hydraulic schemes
    31.3 Characteristics of river hydraulic schemes for different water economy branches
    31.4 Aesthetic shaping of hydraulic schemes
    31.5 River hydraulic schemes without pressure head
    31.6 Low-head hydraulic schemes
    31.7 Medium-head river hydraulic schemes

    32 High-head river hydraulic schemes
    32.1 High-head river hydraulic schemes on mountain rivers (type I)
    32.2 High-head hydraulic schemes on middle and low parts of rivers
    32.3 Pumped-storage hydraulic scheme

    33 Reservoirs
    33.1 Introduction
    33.2 Formation and safety of reservoirs
    33.2.1 Stability of reservoir banks
    33.2.2 Water-impermeability of the reservoir
    33.2.3 Seismicity of the ground in the zone of the reservoir
    33.2.4 Water absorption of the ground in the zone of the reservoir
    33.2.5 Evaporation
    33.2.6 Sediment accumulation
    33.3 Resettlement of population and relocation of structures
    33.4 Sports and recreational facilities

    34 Negative effects of hydraulic schemes and environmental protection
    34.1 Types of negative effects on the environment
    34.1.1 Changing the land into the area of the reservoir
    34.1.2 Change of the flow downstream of the dam
    34.1.3 Damming the migration paths of fish and wild animals
    34.1.4 Change in the surrounding landscape and the microclimate
    34.2 Social and ecological monitoring
    34.3 Environmental protection – selection of a solution with minimum negative effects on the environment

    35 Restoration and reconstruction of hydraulic schemes
    35.1 Need for restoration and reconstruction
    35.2 Restoration of dams and hydraulic schemes
    35.3 Reconstruction of hydraulic schemes

    Subject index
    Index of dams


    Ljubomir Tanchev

    Because of the simple and straightforward language used by the author throughout the text, reading this book is very pleasant. The book’s content covers a wide range of disciplines including the initial studies for implementation of the dam, design, construction and operation of hydraulic schemes.

    The most important issues of design and construction of dams and associated structures are analysed and described in depth, giving the reader a complete overview on the subject. The presentation of the themes is done in a didactic way, and the book can be used as a manual for engineering of dams. […] All chapters are profusely documented with drawings, charts, and photos of recent examples of achievement. Figures and photographs are of high quality.

    […] In short, the updated edition is an indispensable tool for both advanced students and practising engineers of design and operation of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures.

    Paulo Erbisti, Engineering Consultant, Brazil

    The first edition of the Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures treatise […] was in my opinion one of the best ever books written on dams, providing a complete and comprehensive picture of dams and the appurtenant hydraulic structures which are essential for their safety. I am pleasantly surprised that after only 10 years the author brings to the dam community an even better book, the second revised and enriched edition.

    The prime added value of this new edition is the extension of the embankment dam part, focusing on new achievements in concepts and on updated methods of analysis. Special attention is given to the advanced methods of static and dynamic analysis of embankment dams. All valuable papers in the field are reviewed and pertinent syntheses are included in the book. The second major contribution of the new edition is the chapters concerning the new types of concrete dams - roller-compacted concrete gravity dams, hardfill dams and roller-compacted concrete arch dams.

    I strongly recommend the book to professionals. It is also an excellent textbook for (graduate) students in civil, hydraulic and environmental engineering.

    Prof. Dan Stematiu, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

    The reader will find that the book provides a wealth of examples of all kinds of existing dam projects worldwide. By providing a complete and comprehensive picture of dams the author´s work ensures that this book will be a frequently consulted reference for those having frontline experience as dam construction engineers, planners, superintendents, designers and graduate students to increase their knowledge and expertise in this field.

    Fidencio Mendez, Consulting Engineer, Guadalajara, Mexico

    The enhanced 2nd edition of the reference book by L. Tancev on Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures has recently been published. This is not only an important reference book for dam engineers but all engineers, students and interested people, who want to understand the technical aspects of dams. The author has discussed the various aspects of dam engineering and the possible solutions based on a large number of case studies rather than focusing on pure analysis aspects. It is obvious that before any analysis can be done, the problem and the possible solutions must be understood first and it has to be demonstrated that the solutions are feasible, which is shown by the examples given. […] The author has also shown that many solutions for dams are possible depending on the topography and geology as well as on the flood and seismic hazards at the site. Therefore all dams are prototypes and none is like the other.
    The emphasis of the book is clearly on dams. However, appurtenant hydraulic structures such as spillways, surface and high head gates, bottom outlets, run-of-river power plants, locks, and pump storage plants are also discussed.
    This book provides an overview on both the state-of-practice and state-of-the-art in dam engineering and is written in a way that it can easily be understood by non-experts as well. The book is very useful and is highly recommended.

    Dr. Martin Wieland, Chairman Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design (International Commission on Large Dams), c/o Poyry Switzerland Ltd., Zurich/Switzerland