Uncover the Defects that Compromise Performance and Reliability
As microelectronics features and devices become smaller and more complex, it is critical that engineers and technologists completely understand how components can be damaged during the increasingly complicated fabrication processes required to produce them.
A comprehensive survey of defects that occur in silicon-based metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies, this book also discusses flaws in linear bipolar technologies, silicon carbide-based devices, and gallium arsenide materials and devices. These defects can profoundly affect the yield, performance, long-term reliability, and radiation response of microelectronic devices and integrated circuits (ICs). Organizing the material to build understanding of the problems and provide a quick reference for scientists, engineers and technologists, this text reviews yield- and performance-limiting defects and impurities in the device silicon layer, in the gate insulator, and/or at the critical Si/SiO2 interface. It then examines defects that impact production yield and long-term reliability, including:
- Vacancies, interstitials, and impurities (especially hydrogen)
- Negative bias temperature instabilities
- Defects in ultrathin oxides (SiO2 and silicon oxynitride)
Take A Proactive Approach
The authors condense decades of experience and perspectives of noted experimentalists and theorists to characterize defect properties and their impact on microelectronic devices. They identify the defects, offering solutions to avoid them and methods to detect them. These include the use of 3-D imaging, as well as electrical, analytical, computational, spectroscopic, and state-of-the-art microscopic methods. This book is a valuable look at challenges to come from emerging
Table of Contents
Defects in Ultra-Shallow Junctions. Hydrogen-Related Defects in Silicon, Germanium, and Silicon–Germanium Alloys. Defects in Strained-Si MOSFETs. The Effect of Defects on Electron Transport in Nanometer-Scale Electronic Devices: Impurities and Interface Roughness. Electrical Characterization of Defects in Gate Dielectrics. Dominating Defects in the MOS System: Pb and E0 Centers. Oxide Traps, Border Traps, and Interface Traps in SiO2. From 3D Imaging of Atoms to Macroscopic Device Properties. Defect Energy Levels in HfO2 and Related High-K Gate Oxides. Spectroscopic Studies of Electrically Active Defects in High-k Gate Dielectrics. Defects in CMOS Gate Dielectrics. Negative Bias Temperature Instabilities in High-k Gate Dielectrics. Defect Formation and Annihilation in Electronic Devices and the Role of Hydrogen. Toward Engineering Modeling of Negative Bias Temperature Instability. Wear-Out and Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown in Silicon Oxides. Defects Associated with Dielectric Breakdown in SiO2-Based Gate Dielectrics. Defects in Thin and Ultrathin Silicon Dioxides. Structural Defects in SiO2–Si Caused by Ion Bombardment. Impact of Radiation-Induced Defects on Bipolar Device Operation. Silicon Dioxide–Silicon Carbide Interfaces: Current Status and Recent Advances. Defects in SiC. Defects in Gallium Arsenide. Appendix: Selected High-Impact Journal Articles on Defects in Microelectronic Materials and Devices.
Daniel M. Fleetwood, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Ronald D. Schrimpf