Defending Democracy and Securing Diversity
Old sergeants say, "we're here to defend democracy, not to practice it!" But are they right? The special mandate with which defence and security organizations are tasked imposes unique constraints with respect to the accommodation of diversity which differs from those faced by any other public or private organization. Yet, the compound effect of demographic, political, economic, social and legal pressures is making diversity as inevitable in the defence and security sector as in any other organization in advanced industrialized democracies. Owing in part to a dearth of research on the way the defence and security sectors can leverage diversity to enhance their functional imperatives, such sectors have been reticent about diversity.
The chapters in this volume strive to enlighten the debate by laying out the concepts, clarifying theoretical issues, and providing empirical evidence. The case studies draw on Canada, Guyana, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. They examine ethno-cultural, gender, and sexual-minority diversity in a variety of missions, including Bosnia-Herzegovina and Afghanistan. The chapters are notable for their methodological pluralism and interdisciplinary range including political science, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Although scholarly in nature, the book is readily accessible to professionals and practitioners alike.
This book was published as a special issue of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics.
1. Introductory Note Christian Leuprecht
2. Rethinking Diversity and Security Alan Okros
3. Evolution of Policing and Security: Implications for Diverse Security Sectors David Last
4. Evolving UK Policy on Diversity in the Armed Services: Multiculturalism and its Discontents David Mason and Christopher Dandeker
5. Harnessing Social Diversity in the British Armed Forces: The Limitations of ‘Management’ Approaches Victoria Marie Basham
6. Sex, Gender and Cultural Intelligence in the Canadian Forces Karen D. Davis
7. Ethnic Cultural Minorities and their Interest in a Job in the Royal Dutch Army Jelle van den Berg and Rudy Richardson
8. Can Women Make a Difference? Female Peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo Liora Sion
9. Diversity in the Canadian Forces: Lessons from Afghanistan Anne Irwin
10. Ethnic Diversity and Police–Community Relations in Guyana Joan Mars
11. The Politics of Race and Gender in the South African Armed Forces: Issues, Challenges, Lessons Lindy Heinecken and Noelle van der Waag-Cowling
12. Gender Mainstreaming: Lessons for Diversity Donna Winslow
13. Diversity as Strategy: Democracy’s Ultimate Litmus Test Christian Leuprecht
This timely volume breaks new ground on one of the most pressing issues confronting civil-military relations in the twenty-first century: The challenges security and armed forces face with respect to diversity. On the one hand, the volume offers constructive insights to help understand diversity as a philosophical, principle-based requirement to amend culture instead of just as a legislative, rules-based need to amend workforce practices. On the other hand, it explains to a broader public why the profession of arms functions the way it does and the critical issues that security and armed forces must balance when adjusting to broader social trends. … an indispensable read for scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers alike! Aaron Belkin, Associate Professor of Political Science and International Relations and founding director, Palm Center, University of California, Santa Barbara
One of the most common arguments against the promotion of diversity in the security sector is that this offends the 'merit' principle, and detracts from efficiency. Leuprecht's welcome edited volume shows what is wrong with this argument. The contributors demonstrate that a representative security sector is desirable, not just on grounds of justice, but on grounds of functionality too. Promoting representativeness, that is, enhances security. John McGarry, Canada Research Chair in Nationalism and Democracy, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada
Over the past decade the concept of 'diversity' has gained a leading place in academic thought, business practice and public policy around the world. In many ways and places, this has replaced multiculturalism as a guiding idea within state agencies. Comprising insightful studies on the security sector, this book contributes significantly towards understanding the contemporary spread and permutation of the diversity concept, its reworking in different public spheres and its implementation in polices across a variety of contexts and institutions. Steven Vertovec, Professor and Director, Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity