Delay Tolerant Networks: Protocols and Applications (Hardback) book cover

Delay Tolerant Networks

Protocols and Applications

Edited by Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Yan Zhang, Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos

© 2012 – CRC Press

362 pages | 19 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439811085
pub: 2011-11-08
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A class of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN), which may violate one or more of the assumptions regarding the overall performance characteristics of the underlying links in order to achieve smooth operation, is rapidly growing in importance but may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. Delay Tolerant Networks: Protocols and Applications takes you on a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications.

Containing a wealth of illustrative material for ease of understanding, this one-stop reference discusses the various challenges associated with DTN. Written for a broad audience of researchers and practitioners, it supplies useful reference material for graduate students and senior undergraduate students in courses of networking, wireless, and mobile communications. Starting with an accessible introduction to DTNs, their architecture, bundle protocols, and routing schemes, the book provides authoritative coverage of:

  • DTN Routing
  • Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for DTNs
  • A Routing-Compatible Credit-Based Incentive Scheme
  • R-P2P: a Data-Centric Middleware for Delay Tolerant Applications
  • Mobile Peer-to-Peer Systems over DTNs
  • Delay-Tolerant Monitoring of Mobility-Assisted WSN
  • Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks
  • DTN Protocols for Space Communications
  • DTN for Satellite Communications

Reporting on the latest developments in these domains, the distinguished panel of contributors supplies a realistic look into the future of networking. Complete with sections that summarize open issues in each domain, this book arms you with the understanding and methods required to make an impact on the advancement of these emerging networks that continue to grow in importance.

Table of Contents

Delay Tolerant Networking


History of Delay Tolerant Networking

A Delay Tolerant Network

Requirements on DTNs

The Architecture

Overlay Architecture

Store and Forward Message Switching

Routing and Forwarding

Fragmentation and Reassembly

Custody Transfer

The Bundle Protocol

Bundle Service

Bundle Format

Bundle Processing

Routing Schemes in DTNs

Routing Considerations

Classification of Routing Schemes

Replication-Based Routing

Open Issues in Delay-Tolerant Networking


Custody and Congestion


DTN Routing: Taxonomy and Design


Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks

Routing as Opportunistic Forwarding

Message Replication

Message Forwarding

Message Coding

DTN Routing as Resource Allocation

DTN Routing Utility Functions

Destination Dependent (DD) Utility

Destination Independent (DI) Utility

Additional Considerations

Examples of DTN Routing Protocols

A Taxonomy of DTNs



Node Resources

Application Requirements

DTN Routing Design Guidelines

Case Studies

Pocket Switched Networks

Metropolitan Networks with Heterogeneous Nodes

Applications with Priorities

Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks


Routing in Sparse Networks

The Epidemic Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Network

The Properties of the Epidemic Routing Protocol

The Network Lifetime of the Epidemic Routing Protocol

The Analytical Model of the Epidemic Routing Protocol

The Statistics of Encounter Times

The Transitional Epidemic Routing Model

The Solution of the Epidemic Routing Model

The Restricted Epidemic Routing (RER) Protocols

The Exclusion (EX) Scheme

The Limited Time (LT) Scheme

The Limited Number of Copies (LC) Scheme

The Tradeoff Function of the Restricted Epidemic Routing

The Number of Copies and the Time Delay

Evaluation of the Tradeoff Function

The Network Lifetime of the RER Schemes

The Residual-Energy (RE) Scheme

The LC Scheme with Residual-Energy Information

Maximizing the Lifetime of the Delay Tolerant Networks

The Residual-Battery Information

The Comparison of Lifetime Performance

Summary and Concluding Remarks

A Routing-Compatible Credit-Based Incentive Scheme for DTNs


Related Work

System Model and Design Goals

Network Model

Data Forwarding Strategy

Rewarding Model

Attack Model

Design Goals

The Proposed SMART Scheme

Pairing Technique

The Overview of SMART

The SMART Scheme

Efficiency Enhancement

Performance Evaluation

Cryptographic Overhead Evaluation


Open Issues

Public Key Revocation in DTNs

Reputation Based Incentive Scheme


R-P2P: a Data-Centric Middleware for Delay Tolerant Applications

Application Scenario

Related Works

Novelty of the Proposed Architecture

Sketch of the System

Data Retrieval

Diffusion of Advertisements

Functional Blocks

User Nodes

Throwbox Nodes

System Dimensioning

RP2P Design Space

Application Requirements

System Dimensioning

Preliminary Implementation

U-Hopper: The Mobile Part of R-P2P




Mobile Peer-to-Peer Systems over Delay Tolerant Networks


Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks


Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks

Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks

Delay Tolerant Networks

The Store-Carry-Forward Paradigm

MANETs as a Special Case of DTNs

Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks For DTNs


Unstructured Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks

Structured Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks

Summary and Open Problems


Delay-Tolerant Monitoring of Mobility-Assisted WSN

Introduction .

State of the Art

Node-Centric Delay-Critical Monitoring Techniques

Region-Centric Delay-Critical Monitoring Techniques

Mobility-Assisted Delay-Tolerant Monitoring Techniques

Our Contributions Compared to Existing Approaches

System Model

gMAP: Mobility-Assisted Monitoring Using Global Maps

Overview of Approach

Scenario Classification

Path Planning of ANs

Data Collection

eMap Construction


Path Planning Performance

Data Collection and Map Construction Performance

Comparison to Related Work


Open Issues

Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks


Characteristics of VANET

Network Characteristics

Innovative Applications

Low Cost Digital Connectivity in Rural Areas

Data Collection from Sensor Nodes

Cooperative Downloading

Miscellaneous Applications

Message Dissemination

MANET Forwarding Schemes and Their Limitations

Forwarding Schemes Suitable for VANET

Medium Access Control for VANET

Cooperative ARQ

802.11p MAC

Open Issues

Security Challenges



Emerging New Application


Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) Protocols for Space Communications


Space Communications and DTPs for Space/Interplanetary Internet

Overview of Space Communications

Performance Problems of TCP in Space

Data Transport Protocols for Space/Interplanetary Internet

DTN, BP, AND Convergence Layer Protocols

Overview of DTN

DTN for Space

Bundle Protocol (BP)

DTN Convergence Layer Protocol (CLP)

Recent Research and Experimental Activities on DTN for Space Communications


Open Issue


DTN and Satellite Communications


Bundle Layer DTN Architecture Overview

End-to-End Reliability and Custody Transfer Option

DTN Concept Development

Satellite Channel Impairments and Possible Solutions

End-to-End TCP Enhancements and Other Transport Protocols Optimized for Satellite and Space Communications

Performance Enhancing Proxies (or "Protocol Accelerators")

The Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking Alternative

Testbed and Tools Used in Performance Evaluations

Performance Evaluation

Scenario 2: Satellite Systems with Random Intermittent Endto-End Connectivity

TCP Resilience to Disruption

Analysis of DTN Behavior in the Presence of Disruption

Performance Evaluation in a Realistic Case Study: Railway Satellite Communications

Scenarios 3 and 4

Scenario 3: Satellite Systems with Scheduled Intermittent End-to-End-Connectivity

Scenario 4: Satellite Systems without End-to-End Connectivity

Ongoing Research

NASA JPL October 2008 Experiments

DTN Application to a Military Heterogeneous Network

DTN Application to the UK-DMC LEO System


About the Editors

Dr. Athanasios Vasilakos is with the University of Western Macedonia, Greece.

Dr. Yan Zhang is with the Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.

Dr. Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos is with ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

About the Series

Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications