We create technology enabling us to do things never before possible and it ultimately changes the way we live, work, play, and interact with each other. Throughout human history, the democratization of technology making a technology available to the masses, has brought about sweeping cultural, social, political, and societal changes. In the last half-century, the democratization of computers, information, the Internet, and social media have revolutionized and transformed our lives. We now stand at the beginning of a new era sure to bring about waves of new revolutions, the cognitive systems era. Until now, humans have done all of the thinking. However, our lives are about to be infused with artificial entities capable of performing high-level cognitive processing previously possible only in the human mind. Systems capable of this kind of "synthetic cognition" will achieve and surpass the level of human experts in almost every field of endeavor. Far from replacing humans, these cognitive systems will be our collaborators, teachers, confidants, colleagues, and companions. The future will belong to those who can better partner with these cognitive systems. Made available to the average person via the Internet, handheld devices, and through ordinary objects all around us, expertise will become democratized. Everything will change when anyone has access to expertise in any field and new things will be possible. The democratization of expertise is the foundation on which our society’s revolutions will be built over the next half-century. This book discusses societal and cultural revolutions throughout history brought about by the adoption of new technology and gives brief histories of human cognitive augmentation and artificial intelligence. In the coming cognitive systems era, humans, by collaboratively partnering with cognitive systems, will together achieve expert-level performance—synthetic expertise—with humans performing some of the cognitive processing and cognitive systems performing some. As the capabilities of cognitive systems improve over time, the balance of thinking will shift from being mostly human to mostly artificial. This book introduces the Levels of Cognitive Augmentation to describe this shift. Drawing from previous research in cognitive systems and intelligent agent theory, the knowledge stores required for expertise are identified in a Knowledge Level description of expertise. This book introduces a new abstract level, called the Expertise Level to describe the skills needed for expertise. Combining the knowledge-level and expertise-level descriptions, this book introduces the Model of Expertise. This book demonstrates use of the Model of Expertise by presenting several synthetic expert architectures: a synthetic teacher (Synthia), a synthetic friend/therapist (Sy), a synthetic elderly companion (Lois), a synthetic research companion (Synclair), and an automated scientific hypothesis explorer (Ashe). This book is intended for anyone interested in the fields of cognitive systems, cognitive computing, cognitive augmentation, or artificial intelligence or the impact of technologies from these fields on society. Anyone doing research and development in the area of cognitive systems or artificial intelligence will find this book particularly useful.
Table of Contents
Foreword. Acknowledgements. When Things Become Democratized. Deep Learning/Machine Learning. A Brief History of Human Augmentation. A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence. The Nature of Expertise. Cognitive Architectures. Synthetic Expertise. Synthetic Teachers. Synthetic Friend/Therapist. Synthetic Elderly Companions. Synthetic Colleagues. Autonomously Generated Knowledge. The Democratization of Expertise.
Ron Fulbright is a PhD in computer engineering and professor of informatics and engineering systems at the University of South Carolina Upstate with over 38 years of experience in software engineering and research. In addition to cognitive systems, cognitive metrics, and human cognitive augmentation, Dr. Fulbright’s research interests include: innovation, innovation management and distributed artificial intelligence and has won multiple innovation awards.