Social stigmatization is a virtual curse imposed on certain Indian social sections by the colonial government as part of their contextual political strategies by late nineteenth century. The so-called denotified tribes (formerly known as ex-criminal tribes) in Indian society occupy this state-made category. According to the latest survey reports, India has 198 groups belonging to nomadic and denotified tribes: unorganized, scattered and utter nobodies. Social justice is alien to them and economic disempowerment eventually resulted in slavery, bonded labour and poverty. Public welfare measures pay scant attention to the issue of reform and rehabilitation of these sections and, they are made to suffer from an identity crisis today. Most of these communities are split under reserved categories: Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes. The work tries to present a narrative detailing the conditions of denotified tribes during colonial and post-colonial India. And the undeclared wish in doing so is to seek the attention of those in policy-making and decision-making bodies under the Indian government.
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Table of Contents
Part I: Understanding Nomadic and Denotified Communities1. Nomadic and Denotified Tribes: A Bird’s Eye View 2. Stigmatized Communities in India: A Human Rights Perspective 3. Tribes with Stigma: Historical and Legal Status Part II: Status of Nomadic and Denotified Tribes under Colonial Rule 4. Colonial Rule and Criminal Tribes: A Study of Criminal Tribes Acts in Andhra Pradesh, 1871-1965 5. Establishment of Criminal Tribe Settlements in Andhra: A Historical Survey 6. Tribes in Transition: A Study of Selected Denotified Tribes in Andhra Pradesh 7. Colonialism and Ex-Criminal Tribes: A Profile of Lingala Settlement in Telangana 8. Criminal Tribes Acts and Ex-Criminal Tribes of the United Provinces 9. Historical Profile of Koravas and Koramars/Korachas in Karnataka 10. Policy Recommendations and the Status of Nomadic, Semi-Nomadic and Denotified Communities:A Brief on Karnataka’s Experience Part III: Administrative Arrangements and Development Issues 11. General Conditions and Administration in Settlements: A Case Study of Siddhapuram and Stuartpuram 12. Fiscal Management of Denotified Tribe Settlements in Andhra Pradesh 13. Economic Profile of Denotified Tribe Settlements in Andhra Pradesh: A Study of Siddhapuram Settlement 14. Perceptions and Approaches to ‘Criminals’ and Non-Criminals in Madras Presidency: Colonial Bureaucracy, Missionaries and Settlement Managers 15. ‘Criminal’ Tribes in the Princely State of Mysore: Measures of Surveilance 16. Land Allotment and Cultivation: Andhra Pradesh 17. Industrial Settlements for Ex-Criminal Tribes 18. Developmental Challenges, with Special Reference to Andhra Pradesh 19. Development of Nomadic/Denotified Tribes:Official Reports and Recommendations Part IV: Health and Education 20. Health Interventions by Missionaries: A Study of Ex-Settlements in Andhra Pradesh 21. Education of Children: Madras Presidency Experience 22. Erosion of Tribal Dialects and Cultural Forms: A Study of Yerukulas 23. Life Skills Education and Human Capital:The Case of Tribal Children Part V: Reform and Change in South India 24. Tradition and Change: A Case of Waddars of South India 25. Denotified Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: Social Reform and Rehabilitation 26. Case Studies: Life Sketeches of Reformed Ex-Criminals of Stuartpuram Settlement 27. Conclusion
Malli Gandhi, Professor, Regional Institute of Education, NCERT
Kompalli H.S.S. Sundar, Ph.D.