The source Dermal Absorption and Toxicity Assessment supplies a state-of-the-art overview of the dermal absorption process, and is divided into six well organized sections. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this Second Edition is a complete revised and updated text, covering the wide range of methods used to assess skin absorption and the various governmental and industrial programs concerned with skin permeation and toxicity. These include alternative in silico, in vitro, and in vivo strategies to conduct studies for regulatory requirements. To make room for this new expanded content, the editors are publishing a concurrent text entitled: Dermatological and Cosmetic Development with a concentration on subjects concerned with dermatological and cosmetic therapies
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION. Human Skin Morphology and Dermal Absorption. Animal Skin Morphology and Dermal Absorption. SKIN BARRIER PROPERTIES AND ABSORPTION. The Physical Structure of the Skin Barrier. Skin Lipid Morphology and Function. Stratum Corneum as a Biosensor ;. Cutaneous Metabolism. Formulation Issues. MEASUREMENT OF SKIN ABSORPTION. Interpretation of In Vitro Skin Absorption Studies of Lipophilic Chemicals. Use of Skin Equivalents for Dermal Absorption and Toxicity. Skin Absorption as Studied by Spectroscopic Methods. MODELING OF DERMAL ABSORPTION AND RISK ASSESSMENT. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Skin. Beyond Stratum Corneum. Biophysical Models for Skin Transport and Absorption. Mathematical Models for Different Exposure Conditions.Modelling Skin Permeability in Risk Assessment. In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations in Transdermal Drug Delivery. Estimation of Subsequent Systemic Exposure - Physiological Models. "Riskofderm" - Predictions Based on In Vivo Factors. SKIN TOXICITY AND PREVENTION Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships for Skin Corrosivity and Toxicity Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Irritancy of Topical Chemicals and Transdermal Delivery Systems. Phototoxicity, Photocarcinogenicity and Photogenicity Systemic Toxicity in Man Secondary to Percutaneous Absorption. Effects of Solvents and Other Vehicles on the Stratum Corneum and Other Skin Components. REGULATORY ISSUES. Dermal Absorption of Chemicals: Some Australian Regulatory Considerations. International Perspectives in Dermal Absorption.Structure-Activity Relationships and Prediction of Photoallergic and Phototoxic Potential. Potential Regulatory Use of (Q)SARs to Develop Dermal Irritation and Corrosion Assessment Strategies. Development of (Q)SARs for Dermal Irritation and Corrosion Assessment Using EU New Chemicals Notification Data. Regulatory Assessment of Skin Sensitization. Assessment of Topical Bioequivalence Using Microdialysis and Other Techniques An Industry Perspective of Topical Dermal Bioequivalence. SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF ABSORPTION Dermal Absorption of Chemical Contaminants from Soil. Percutaneous Absorption of Pesticides.Bathing Water: Percutaneous Absorption of Water Contaminants. Percutaneous Absorption of Pro- and Soft- Drugs. Skin Penetration of Cosmetic Ingredients and Contaminants. Percutaneous Absorption of Hair Dyes. Percutaneous Absorption of Fragrance Materials.