Safety-critical systems, by definition those systems whose failure can cause catastrophic results for people, the environment, and the economy, are becoming increasingly complex both in their functionality and their interactions with the environment. Unfortunately, safety assessments are still largely done manually, a time-consuming and error-prone process. The growing complexity of these systems requires an increase in the skill and efficacy of safety engineers and encourages the adoption of formal and standardized techniques.
An introduction to the area of design and verification of safety-critical systems, Design and Safety Assessment of Critical Systems focuses on safety assessment using formal methods. Beginning with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of safety and reliability, it illustrates the pivotal issues of design, development, and safety assessment of critical systems.
The core of the book covers traditional notations, techniques, and procedures, including Fault Tree Analysis, FMECA, HAZOP, and Event Tree Analysis, and explains in detail how formal methods can be used to realize such procedures. It looks at the development process of safety-critical systems, and highlights influential management and organizational aspects. Finally, it describes verification and validation techniques and new trends in formal methods for safety and concludes with some widely adopted standards for the certification of safety-critical systems.
Providing an in-depth and hands-on view of the application of formal techniques to advanced and critical safety assessments in a variety of industrial sectors, such as transportation, avionics and aerospace, and nuclear power, Design and Safety Assessment of Critical Systems allows anyone with a basic background in mathematics or computer science to move confidently into this advanced arena of safety assessment.
Table of Contents
Complex Safety-Critical Systems
Dealing with Failures: A Short History of Safety Engineering
The Role of Formal Methods
A Case Study: Three Mile Island
Dependability, Reliability, and Safety Assessment
Classification of Faults
Techniques for Safety Assessment
Development of Safety-Critical Applications
What Makes a System Complex
What Makes the Development Complex
Measuring the Impact of Complexity
From System to Process
A General Development Framework
Safety Assessment Workflow
Certification Management Workflow
Project Management Workflow
Improving the Process: Maturity Models
Formal Methods for Safety Assessment
Advantages of Formal Methods
Formal Methods in the Development Process
Problems and Limitations
History of Formal Methods
Formal Models and Specification
Formal Methods for Verification and Validation
Formal Safety Analysis
Industrial Applications of Formal Methods
Conclusions and Future Directions
Formal Methods for Certification
Certification of Avionic Systems
So Many Standards, So Little Time
The ECSS System of Standards
Avionics Reference Standards
The Case for the Safety Case
Formal Methods and Certification
The NuSMV Model Checker
The FSAP Safety Analysis Platform
Some Regulatory Bodies and Regulations
Marco Bozzano is a senior researcher in the Embedded Systems Unit of Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy. He has strong expertise in the application of formal methods, and he has published a number of papers in the area of formal verification of safety critical systems.
Adolfo Villafiorita is a senior researcher at Fondazione Bruno Kessler. He has many years of experience in the application of formal methods in technology transfer projects and in the development of security and safety-critical applications. He is a contract professor at the University of Trento.