1st Edition

Design for Manufacturability How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production

By David M. Anderson Copyright 2014
    486 Pages 49 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production shows how to use concurrent engineering teams to design products for all aspects of manufacturing with the lowest cost, the highest quality, and the quickest time to stable production. Extending the concepts of design for manufacturability to an advanced product development model, the book explains how to simultaneously make major improvements in all these product development goals, while enabling effective implementation of Lean Production and quality programs.

    Illustrating how to make the most of lessons learned from previous projects, the book proposes numerous improvements to current product development practices, education, and management. It outlines effective procedures to standardize parts and materials, save time and money with off-the-shelf parts, and implement a standardization program. It also spells out how to work with the purchasing department early on to select parts and materials that maximize quality and availability while minimizing part lead-times and ensuring desired functionality.

    • Describes how to design families of products for Lean Production, build-to-order, and mass customization
    • Emphasizes the importance of quantifying all product and overhead costs and then provides easy ways to quantify total cost
    • Details dozens of design guidelines for product design, including assembly, fastening, test, repair, and maintenance
    • Presents numerous design guidelines for designing parts for manufacturability
    • Shows how to design in quality and reliability with many quality guidelines and sections on mistake-proofing (poka-yoke)

    Describing how to design parts for optimal manufacturability and compatibility with factory processes, the book provides a big picture perspective that emphasizes designing for the lowest total cost and time to stable production. After reading this book you will understand how to reduce total costs, ramp up quickly to volume production without delays or extra cost, and be able to scale up production rapidly so as not to limit growth.


    Design for Manufacturability
    Manufacturing before DFM
         What DFM Is Not
         Comments from Company DFM Surveys
    Myths and Realities of Product Development
    Achieving the Lowest Cost
         Toyota on When Cost Is Determined
         Ultra-Low-Cost Product Development
    Designing for Low Cost
         Design for Cost Approaches
              Cost-Based Pricing
              Price-Based Costing (Target Costing)
              Cost Targets Should Determine Strategy
         Cost Metrics and Their Effect on Results
         How to Design Very Low Cost Products
         Cost Reduction by Change Order
    Cutting Time-to-Market in Half
    Roles and Focus
         Human Resources Support for Product Development
         Job Rotation
         Management Role to Support DFM
         Management Focus
         Successful or Counterproductive Metrics for NPD
    Resistance to DFM
    Arbitrary Decisions
    DFM and Design Time
    Engineering Change Orders
    Do It Right the First Time
    Strategy to Do It Right the First Time
    Company Benefits of DFM
    Personal Benefits of DFM

    Concurrent Engineering
         Front-Loading at Toyota
    Ensuring Resource Availability
         Prioritizing Product Portfolios
         Prioritizing Product Development Projects
         Prioritization at Leading Companies
              Prioritization at Apple
              Product Development Prioritization at HP
              Prioritization at Toyota
              Product Prioritization for Truck Bodies
         Prioritizing Resources for Custom Orders, Low-Volume Builds, Legacy Products, and Spare Parts
         Develop Acceptance Criteria for Unusual Orders
         Make Customizations and Configurations More Efficient
         The Package Deal
         Rationalize Products
         Maximize Design Efficiency of Existing Resources
         Avoid Product Development Failures
         Avoid Supply Chain Distractions
         Optimize Product Development Project Scheduling
         Ensure Availability of Manufacturing Engineers
         Correct Critical Resource Shortages
         Invest in Product Development Resources
              R&D Investment at Medtronic
              R&D Investment at General Electric and Siemens
              R&D Investment at Apple
              R&D Investment at Samsung
    Product Portfolio Planning
    Parallel and Future Projects
    Designing Products as a Team
         The Problems with Phases, Gates, Reviews, and Periodic Meetings
         Building Many Models and Doing Early Experiments
         Manufacturing Participation
         Role of Procurement
         Team Composition
         Team Continuity
         Part-Time Participation
         Using Outside Expertise
         The Value of Diversity
         Encouraging Honest Feedback
    Vendor Partnerships
         The Value of Vendor/Partnerships
         Vendor/Partnerships Will Result in a Lower Net Cost Because
         Vendor Partner Selection
         Working with Vendor Partners
    The Team Leader
         The Team Leader at Toyota
         The Team Leader at Motorola
         Team Leaders and Sponsors at Motorola
         Effect of Onshoring on Concurrent Engineering
         The Project Room (The "Great Room" or Obeya)
    Team Membership and Roles
         Manufacturing and Service
         Tooling Engineers
         Purchasing and Vendors
         Industrial Designers
         Quality and Test
         Regulatory Compliance
         Factory Workers
         Specialized Talent
         Other Projects
    Outsourcing Engineering
         Which Engineering Could Be Outsourced?
    Product Definition
         Understanding Customer Needs
         Writing Product Requirements
         Consequences of Poor Product Definition
         Customer Input
         Quality Function Deployment
         How QFD Works

    Designing the Product
    Design Strategy
         Designing around Standard Parts
              Sheet Metal
              Bar Stock
         Off-the-Shelf Parts
         Proven Processing
         Proven Designs, Parts, and Modules
         Arbitrary Decisions
         Minimizing Tolerance Demands
         System Integration
         Optimizing All Design Strategies
         Design Strategy for Electrical Systems
         Electrical Connections: Best to Worst
         Optimize Use of Flex Layers
         Voltage Standardization
         DFM for Printed Circuit Boards
    Importance of Thorough Up-Front Work
         Thorough Up-Front Work at Toyota
         Thorough Up-Front Work at Motorola
         Thorough Up-Front Work at IDEO
         Avoid Compromising Up-Front Work
              Slow Processes for Sales and Contracts
              Rushing NPD for Long-Lead-Time Parts
              Rushing NPD for Early Evaluation Units
         Early Evaluation Units
    Optimizing Architecture and System Design
         Generic Product Definition
         Team Composition and Availability
         Product Development Approach
         Lessons Learned
              Categories of Lessons Learned
              Methodologies for Lessons Learned
         Raising and Resolving Issues Early
              Project Issues
              Team Issues
              Mitigating Risk
              New Technologies
              Techniques to Resolve Issues Early
              Contingency Plans
              Achieving Concurrence before Proceeding 
         Manual Tasks
         Skill and Judgment
         Technical or Functional Challenges
         Manufacturable Science
         Concept/Architecture Design Optimization
         Optimizing the Use of CAD in the Concept/Architecture Phase 
         Concept Simplification
         Manufacturing and Supply Chain Strategies
    Part Design Strategies
    Design for Everything (DFX)
         Quality and Reliability
         Ease of Assembly
         Ability to Test
         Ease of Service and Repair
         Supply Chain Management
         Shipping and Distribution
         Human Factors
         Appearance and Style
         Customers’ Needs
         Breadth of Product Line
         Product Customization
         Expansion and Upgrading
         Future Designs
         Environmental Considerations
              Product Pollution
              Processing Pollution
              Ease of Recycling Products
    Creative Product Development
         Generating Creative Ideas
         Generating Ideas at Leading Companies
         Encouraging innovation at Medtronic
         Nine Keys to Creativity
         Creativity in a Team
         The Ups and Downs of Creativity
    Half-Cost Product Development
         Prerequisites for Half-Cost Development
              Total Cost
         Designing Half-Cost Products


    Designing for Lean and Build-to-Order
    Lean Production
         Flow Manufacturing
         Supply Chain Simplification
         Kanban Automatic Part Resupply
    Mass Customization
    Developing Products for Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization
    Portfolio Planning for Lean, Build-to- Order, and Mass Customization
    Designing Products for Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization
         Designing around Standard Parts
         Designing to Reduce Raw Material Variety
         Designing around Readily Available Parts and Materials
         Designing for No Setup
         Parametric CAD.
         Designing for CNC
         Grouping Parts
         Understanding CNC
         Eliminating CNC setup
         Developing Synergistic Families of Products
         Strategy for Designing Product Families
          Designing Products in Synergistic Product Families
    Modular Design
         Pros and Cons of Modular Design
         Modular Design Principles
    Offshoring and Manufacturability
         Offshoring’s Effect on Product Development
         Offshoring’s Effect on Lean Production and Quality
         Offshoring Decisions
         Bottom Line on Offshoring
    The Value of Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization
         Cost Advantages of BTO&MC
         Responsive Advantages of BTO&MC
         Customer Satisfaction from BTO&MC
         Competitive Advantages of BTO&MC
         Bottom Line Advantages of BTO&MC

    Part Proliferation
    The Cost of Part Proliferation
    Why Part Proliferation Happens
    Results of Part Proliferation
    Part Standardization Strategy
         New Products
         Existing Products
    Early Standardization Steps
         List Existing Parts
         Clean Up Database Nomenclature
         Eliminate Approved but Unused Parts
         Eliminate Parts Not Used Recently
         Eliminate Duplicate Parts
         Prioritize Opportunities
    Zero-Based Approach
    Standard Part List Generation
    Part Standardization Results
    Raw Materials Standardization
    Standardization of Expensive Parts
    Consolidation of Inflexible Parts
         Custom Silicon Consolidation
         VLSI/ASIC Consolidation
         Consolidated Power Supply at Hewlett-Packard
    Tool Standardization
    Feature Standardization
    Process Standardization
    Encouraging Standardization
    Reusing Designs, Parts, and Modules
         Obstacles to Reusable Engineering
         Reuse Studies
    Off-the-Shelf Parts
         Optimizing the Utilization of Off-the-Shelf Parts
         When to Use Off-the-Shelf Parts
         Finding Off-the-Shelf Parts
    New Role of Procurement
         How to Search for Off-the-Shelf Parts
         Maximizing Availability and Minimizing Lead Times
    Standardization Implementation


    Minimizing Total Cost by Design
    How Not to Lower Cost
         Why Cost Is Hard to Remove after Design
         Cost-Cutting Doesn’t Work
    Cost Measurements
         Usual Definition of Cost    
         Selling Price Breakdown
         Selling Price Breakdown for an Outsourced Company 
         Overhead Cost Minimization Strategy
    Strategy to Cut Total Cost in Half
    Minimizing Cost through Design
    Minimizing Overhead Costs
    Minimizing Product Development Expenses
         Product Portfolio Planning
         Multifunctional Design Teams
         Methodical Product Definition
         Total Cost Decision Making
         Design Efficiency
         Off-the-Shelf Parts
         Product Life Extensions
         Debugging Costs
         Test Cost
         Product Development Expenses
         More Efficient Development Costs Less
         Product Development Risk
    Cost Savings of Off-the-Shelf Parts
    Minimizing Engineering Change Order Costs
    Minimizing Cost of Quality
    Rational Selection of Lowest Cost Supplier
    Low Bidding
         Cost Reduction Illusion
         Cost of Bidding
         Pressuring Suppliers for Lower Cost
         The Value of Relationships for Cost Reduction
         Cheap Parts: Save Now, Pay Later
         Reduce Total Cost Instead of Focusing on Cheap Parts
         Value of High-Quality Parts
    Maximizing Factory Efficiency
    Lowering Overhead Costs with Flexibility
    Minimizing Customization/Configuration Costs
    Minimizing the Cost of Variety
         Work-in-Process Inventory
         Floor Space
         Internal Logistics
         Setup Costs
         Kitting Costs
    Minimizing Materials Management Costs
    Minimizing Marketing Costs
    Minimizing Sales/Distribution Costs
    Minimizing Supply Chain Costs
    Minimizing Life Cycle Costs
         Reliability Costs
         Field Logistics Costs
    Saving Cost with Build-to-Order
         Factory Finished Goods Inventory
         Dealer Finished Goods Inventory
         Supply Chain Inventory
         Interest Expense
         New Technology Introduction
         MRP Expenses
    Effect of Counterproductive Cost Reduction

    Total Cost
    Value of Total Cost
         Value of Prioritization and Portfolio Planning
         Value of Product Development
         Value of Resource Availability and Efficiency
         Value of Knowing the Real Profitability
         Value of Quantifying All Overhead Costs
         Value of Supply Chain Management
    Quantifying Overhead Costs
         Distortions in Product Costing
         Relevant Decision Making
         Cost Management
         Downward Spirals
    Resistance to Total Cost Accounting
    Total Cost Thinking
    Implementing Total Cost Accounting
    Cost Drivers
         Tektronix Portable Instruments Division
         HP Roseville Network Division (RND)
         HP Boise Surface Mount Center
    Tracking Product Development Expenses
    "abc": The Low-Hanging-Fruit Approach
         Implementing "abc"
    Implementation Efforts
    Typical Results of Total Cost Implementations


    DFM Guidelines For Product Design
    Design for Assembly
         Combining Parts
    Assembly Design Guidelines
    Fastening Guidelines
    Assembly Motion Guidelines
    Test Strategy and Guidelines
    Testing in Quality versus Building in Quality
         Testing in Quality with Diagnostic Tests
         Building in Quality to Eliminate Diagnostic Tests
    Design for Repair and Maintenance
    Repair Design Guidelines
    Design for Service and Repair
    Maintenance Measurements
         Mean Time to Repair
    Designing for Maintenance Guidelines

    DFM Guidelines for Part Design
    Part Design Guidelines
    DFM for Fabricated Parts
    DFM for Castings and Molded Parts
         DFM Strategies for Castings
         DFM Strategies for Plastics
    DFM for Sheet Metal
    DFM for Welding
         Understanding Limitations and Complications
         Optimize Weldment Strategy for Manufacturability
         Adhere to Design Guidelines
         Work with Vendors/Partners
         Print 3D Models
         Learn How to Weld
         Minimize Skill Demands
         Thoroughly Explore Non-Welding Alternatives
    DFM for Large Parts
         The Main Problem with Large Parts
         Other Costs
         Residual Stresses
         Loss of Strength


    Design for Quality
    Quality Design Guidelines
         Excessively Tight Tolerances
         Worst-Case Tolerancing
          Tolerance Strategy
         Block Tolerances
         Taguchi Method™ for Robust Design
    Cumulative Effects on Product Quality
         Effect of Part Count and Quality on Product Quality
         Predictive Quality Model
         Quality Strategies for Products
    Reliability Design Guidelines
    Measurement of Reliability
    Reliability Phases
         Infant Mortality Phase
         Wearout Phase
    Poka-Yoke Principles
         How to Ensure Poka-Yoke by Design
         Solutions to Error Prevention after Design
    Strategy to Design in Quality
    Customer Satisfaction


    Implementing DFM
         Change at Leading Companies
    Preliminary Investigations
         Conduct Surveys
         Estimate Improvements from DFM
         Get Management Buy-In
    DFM Training
         Need for DFM Training
         Don’t Do DFM Training "On the Cheap"
         Customize Training to Products
          Trainer Qualifications
         DFM Training Agenda
         "What Happens Next?"
         Training Attendance
    DFM Task Force
    Stop Counterproductive Policies
    Company Implementation
         Optimize NPD Teams
         Optimize NPD Infrastructure
         Incorporating DFM into the NPD Process
    Team Implementation
         Importance for Challenging Projects
         Ensuring Success for the First Team Concurrent Engineering Project
    Individual Implementation
    DFM for Students and Job Seekers
    Key DFM Tasks, Results, and Tools


    Appendix A: Product Line Rationalization
    Pareto’s Law for Product Lines
    How Rationalization Can Triple Profits!
    Cost Savings from Rationalization
    Shifting Focus to the Most Profitable Products
    Rationalization Strategies
    The Rationalization Procedure
    Total Cost Implications
    Overcoming Inhibitions, Fears, and Resistance
    Implementation and Corporate Strategy
    How Rationalization Improves Quality
    Value of Rationalization

    Appendix B: Summary of Guidelines
    Assembly Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Fastening Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Assembly Motion Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Test Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Repair Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Maintenance Guidelines from Chapter 8
    Part Design Guidelines from Chapter 9
    DFM for Fabricated Parts from Chapter 9
    DFM Strategies for Castings from Chapter 9
    DFM Strategies for Plastics from Chapter 9
    DFM for Sheet Metal from Chapter 9
    Quality Guidelines from Chapter 10
    Reliability Guidelines from Chapter 10

    Appendix C: Feedback Forms

    Appendix D: Resources
    Books Cited
    Companion Book for Matching Improvements in Operations
    DFM Seminar
    Seminar on BTO & Mass Customization
    Workshops Facilitated by Dr. Anderson
    Design Studies and Consulting


    Dr. David M. Anderson, P.E., is the world’s leading expert on using concurrent engineering to design products for manufacturability. Over the past 27 years presenting customized in-house DFM seminars, he has honed these methodologies into an effective way to accelerate the real time-to-stable-production and significantly reduce total cost.

    His book-length website, www.HalfCostProducts.com, presents a comprehensive cost reduction strategy consisting of eight strategies. DFM is a key half-cost strategy because it supports most of the others. Dr. Anderson shows clients how to apply these strategies for cost reduction, ranging from half cost to an order of magnitude, which he teaches in customized in-house seminars, workshops, and design studies to generate innovative breakthrough concepts.

    In the management of technology program at the University of California at Berkeley, he wrote and taught the product development course twice. He wrote the opening chapter in the sixth volume of the SME Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook. His second book on mass customization, Build-to-Order & Mass Customization: The Ultimate Supply Chain Management and Lean Manufacturing Strategy for Low-Cost On-Demand Production Without Forecasts or Inventory, is described in Appendix D.

    Dr. Anderson has more than 35 years of industrial experience in design and manufacturing. For seven years, his company, Anderson Automation, Inc., built special production equipment and tooling for IBM and OCLI and did design studies for FMC, Clorox Manufacturing, and SRI International. As the ultimate concurrent engineering experience, he personally built the equipment he designed in his own machine shop. He has been issued four patents and is working on more.

    Dr. Anderson is a fellow of ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and a life member in SME (Society of Manufacturing Engineers). He is a certified management consultant (CMC) through the Institute of Management Consultants. His credentials include professional registrations in mechanical, industrial, and manufacturing engineering and a doctorate in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, with a major in design for production and minors in industrial engineering, metalworking, and business administration.

    Dr. Anderson can be reached via email: [email protected]. His websites are www.design4manufacturability.com and www.HalfCostProducts.com.