Studies confirm that the physical environment influences health outcomes, emotional state, preference, satisfaction and orientation, but very little research has focused on mental and behavioural health settings. This book summarizes design principles and design research for individuals who are intending to design new mental and behavioural health facilities and those wishing to evaluate the quality of their existing facilities. The authors discuss mental and behavioural health systems, design guidelines, design research and existing standards, and provide examples of best practice. As behavioural and mental health populations vary in their needs, the primary focus is limited to environments that support acute care, outpatient and emergency care, residential care, veterans, pediatric patients, and the treatment of chemical dependency.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Part 1: Mental and Behavioral Health Context. 1. Mental and behavioral health history and context. 1.1. Historical perspective. 1.2. Challenges to mental and behavioral health research and design. 1.3. Global issues. 1.4. Mental and behavioral health context summary. 2. General Design Considerations. 2.1. Theories behind psychiatric facility design. 2.2. Planning and programming considerations. 2.3. Transdisciplinary collaboration. 2.4. Design considerations. 2.5. Environmental psychology issues. 2.6. Specific setting issues. 2.7. Site and building envelope and configuration. 2.8. Case studies. Part 2: The Settings. 3. Outpatient Facilities. 3.1. Introduction to outpatient facilities. 3.2. Characteristics of outpatient psychiatric facilities. 3.3. Outpatient psychiatric facility design. 3.4. Case study. 4. Emergency Psychiatric Facilities. 4.1. Introduction to emergency facilities. 4.2. Characteristics of emergency psychiatric facilities. 4.3. Emergency psychiatric facility design. 4.4. Case Studies. 5. Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Characteristics of facilities for persons with substance use disorders. 5.3. Research on facilities for persons with substance abuse disorders. 5.4. Substance use disorder facility design goals. 5.5. Case studies. 6. Mental Health Facilities for Veterans of War. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Characteristics of residential mental health facilities for war veterans. 6.3. Research on mental and behavioral health facilities for war veterans. 6.4. Design goals for facilities for war veterans. 6.5. Case study. 7. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Care. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Characteristics of residential pediatric mental health care facilities. 7.3. Characteristics of outpatient and emergency room pediatric mental health care facilities. 7.4. Pediatric inpatient, outpatient and emergency room design goals. 7.5. Case studies. 8. Mental and behavioral health community residential settings. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. Characteristics of residential facilities. 8.3. Mental and behavioral health design goals. 8.4. Case studies. Part 3: The Research. 9. The Role of the Physical Environment in Mental & Behavioral Health Research. 9.1. History and status of research. 9.2. Methodology for literature review. 9.3. Challenges to data collection involving patients. 9.4. Behavioral health facility evaluation tools. 9.5. Linking research to design. 9.6. Research summary. 9.7. Trends. Part 4: Guidelines and Future Directions. 10. Guidelines. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. Organizations providing standards and guidelines. 10.3. Challenges to guidelines and standards. 10.4. Differences between guidelines and standards. 10.5. Guideline research agenda. 11. Conclusion. 11.1. Where we’ve been. 11.2. Where we’re headed.
Mardelle McCuskey Shepley, M.Arch., M.A., D.Arch., EDAC, FAIA, FACHA, LEED BD+C is a professor in the Department of Design & Environmental Analysis and associate director of the Healthy Futures Institute at Cornell University. Dr. Shepley has authored/co-authored five books, most recently Design for Critical Care (2009), Health Facility Evaluation for Design Practitioners (2010) and Design for Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care (2014). To enhance the link between research and practice, Dr. Shepley has worked in professional practice, full-time and part-time, for 25 years. She is founder of ART+Science, design research consultants.
Samira Pasha, M.Arch., Ph.D., AIA, LSSGB, EDAC, LEED BD+C, is an architect and researcher at CallisonRTKL, Washington DC. As part of the healthcare studio team, her work includes programming, planning, and evaluation of healthcare environments ranging from small unit renovations to health campus master plans, including domestic and international projects. Since 2012 Samira has been involved with NCARB intern think tank, AIAS, and District Architecture Center (DAC) as an advocate for integrating research into practice of architecture.