Design of Hydraulic Gates: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Design of Hydraulic Gates

2nd Edition

By Paulo C.F. Erbisti

CRC Press

442 pages

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Revised and updated, this second edition of Design of Hydraulic Gates maintains the same goal as the original: to be used as a textbook and a manual of design of gates, presenting the main aspects of design, manufacture, installation and operation of hydraulic gates, while introducing new products, technologies and calculation procedures. This edition included new chapters on intake gates and trashrack design, highlighting the aspects of safety, operational and maintenance procedures. To improve the strength against structural failure of intake trashracks, the author proposes a series of rigid calculation assumptions, design parameters and manufacturing procedures, which will certainly result in safer trashracks. Some 340 drawings and photographs, 82 tables, 107 references and 23 worked examples help the reader to understand the basic concepts and calculation methods presented.


Praise for the first edition:

Nobody is better qualified than Professor Paulo Erbisti to have written this book “Design of Hydraulic Gates”, because he has acquired a very broad personal experience during his career devoted to hydroelectric projects, not only with a scientific spirit, but also a practical approach. He knows very well all the phases of implementation of hydromechanical equipment, from feasibility studies through to erection and commissioning, as well as rehabilitation.

This book is extremely welcome as an efficient synthesis of a broad subject, and engineers from the various disciplines, not only mechanical and electrical but also civil engineers, will recognize its value. The author has covered the subject of gates very comprehensively in his book, from history to new developments. He discusses not only the principle of gates and their associated equipment, the choice of type and calculation methods, but also he (as an excellent practical engineer, who knows that ‘the devil hides in the details’) describes their construction details. Each chapter is supported by a complete list of international references.

The book will be very useful for experienced engineers (as well as students) for the conception, construction and operation of gates.The interest of this book is evident as a reference, and Professor Erbisti should be gratefully acknowledged for his important contribution to this technology.

Raymond Lafitte, Professor at EPFL (Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne), President of the International Hydropower Association

As one leafs through the book, one is pleasantly surprised by the many clear illustrations and photos (ca. 300), tables (ca. 70) and calculations (ca. 20). […] On the one hand, the book – as a textbook – offers students a very clear introduction to the field and on the other hand, represents a handbook with lots of useful advice for engineers in the field of steel hydraulic engineering. Some 90 bibliographic references lead the reader to further background information, also in the realm of more theoretically oriented steel hydraulic engineering. Erbisti’s book "Design of Hydraulic Gates" is all in all a very useful and recommended book.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schmaußer, Aalen, in Stahlbau 73 (2004), 644-646

Table of Contents



1 Introduction

1.1 History and development

1.2 Gate components

1.3 Main applications

1.4 Types and classifications

1.4.1 Purpose

1.4.2 Movement

1.4.3 Water passage

1.4.4 Gate leaf composition

1.4.5 Location

1.4.6 Skin plate shape

2 Types of gates

2.1 Flap gate

2.2 Cylinder gate

2.3 Stoplogs

2.4 Slide gate

2.5 Caterpillar gate

2.6 Miter gate

2.7 Roller gate

2.8 Segment gate

2.9 Sector gate

2.10 Stoney gate

2.11 Drum gate

2.12 Bear-trap gate

2.13 Fixed-wheel gate

2.14 Visor gate

3 Basis for selection of gate type

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Most common types

3.3 Operational requirements

3.4 Present limits of gate sizes and heads

4 Hydrostatics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Vertical lift gates

4.2.1 Weir gates

4.2.2 Submerged gates

4.2.3 Spacing of horizontal beams

4.3 Radial gates

5 Structural design

5.1 Load cases

5.2 Allowable stresses

5.3 Skin plate

5.3.1 Thickness

5.3.2 Plate stresses

5.3.3 Effective width

5.4 Horizontal beams

5.4.1 Number of beams

5.4.2 Girder dimensions Web thickness Web depth Flanges

5.4.3 Elastic stability Compression flanges Web stability Stiffeners

5.4.4 Simple bending of beams

5.5 Segment gate

5.5.1 Skin plate

5.5.2 Gate framing Girder arrangement Horizontal beams Vertical beams

5.5.3 Radial arms Axial loads on the arms Bearing loads Buckling check

5.6 Silt pressure on gates

5.7 Gate seismic loads

6 Embedded parts, guides and supports

6.1 Slots and niches

6.2 Wheel track

6.2.1 Beam on an elastic foundation

6.2.2 Dimensioning by the Andree-Fricke theory

6.3 Slide tracks

6.4 Concrete bearing pressure

6.5 Lateral guidance

6.6 Wheels and pins

6.6.1 Design features

6.6.2 Contact pressure between wheel and track

6.6.3 Permissible contact stresses 1

6.6.4 Surface hardness

6.7 Gate hinges and bearings

6.7.1 Types of bearings

6.7.2 Cylindrical bushings

6.7.3 Spherical plain bearing

6.7.4 Roller bearings

7 Estimating gate weights

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Segment gates

7.3 Fixed-wheel gates

7.4 Double-leaf fixed-wheel gates

7.5 Stoplogs

7.6 Flap gates

7.7 Caterpillar gates

7.8 Embedded parts

8 Hydrodynamic forces

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Model tests

8.3 Factors influencing downpull

8.4 Formulae for the prediction of downpull

8.5 Method of Knapp

9 Gate operating forces

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Gate weight

9.3 Friction on supports and hinges

9.4 Seal deflection

9.5 Seal friction

10 Aeration

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Air vents – functions and features

10.3 Air vents – empirical calculation

10.4 Air-demand ratio

10.5 Air vent dimensioning

11 Gate hoists

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Screw lifts

11.3 Wire ropes

11.4 Roller chains

11.5 Oil hydraulic drives

11.6 Gate hoist arrangement

11.7 Hand operation

11.8 Design criteria

11.8.1 Load capacity

11.8.2 Operating speed

11.8.3 Safety factors

11.9 Gate position measurement

12 Materials

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Heat treatment

12.3 Rolled steels

12.4 Steels for machine elements

12.5 Stainless steels

12.6 Cast steels

12.7 Forged steels

12.8 Gray cast irons

12.9 Bronzes

12.10 Bolts

13 Gate seals

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Wood seals

13.3 Metallic seals

13.4 Rubber seals

13.5 Material for rubber seals

13.6 Clad seals

13.7 Rubber seal hardness

13.8 Rubber specifications

13.9 Seal leakage

13.10 Manufacture and assembly of seals

13.11 High-head segment gates – design considerations

13.12 Double-sealing gates

14 Manufacture, transportation and erection

14.1 Manufacture

14.1.1 Manufacturing steps

14.1.2 Full-size layout drawings

14.1.3 Storing of raw material

14.1.4 Marking

14.1.5 Cutting

14.1.6 Curving

14.1.7 Structure welding

14.1.8 Finishing

14.1.9 Pre-assembly

14.1.10 Machining

14.1.11 Mechanical fit-up

14.1.12 Anticorrosive protection

14.1.13 Inspection

14.1.14 Manufacturing tolerances

14.2 Transportation

14.3 Field erection

14.3.1 Erection instructions

14.3.2 Erection of embedded parts

14.3.3 Erection tolerances of embedded parts

14.3.4 Gate assembly

14.4 Acceptance tests

15 Trends and innovation in gate design

15.1 Long-span gates

15.2 High-head gates

15.3 Refurbishment and modernization of gates and dams

15.3.1 Heightening of existing gates

15.3.2 Installation of new gates on the top of the dam

16 Intake gates

16.1 Intake gates and accessories

16.2 Types of emergency gates

16.3 Gate hoists

16.3.1 Types of hoists

16.3.2 Hydraulic hoists

16.3.3 Cable hoists

16.3.4 Gantry cranes

16.4 Filling the penstock

16.5 Aeration

16.6 Guard gates for Kaplan turbines

16.7 Guard gates for bulb turbines

16.8 Draft tube stoplogs for bulb and Kaplan turbines

17 Intake trashracks

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Rack bar spacing

17.3 Design considerations

17.4 Flow velocity

17.5 Head loss

17.6 Flow-induced vibrations

17.7 Rack-cleaning machines

17.8 Safe design criteria for trashracks

Name index

Subject index

About the Author

Brazilian engineer Paulo Erbisti graduated in mechanical engineering and has amassed considerable experience working on numerous hydromechanical projects, contributing greatly to hydropower/dam engineering over the last few decades in South America, Africa and Asia. He has worked on many important projects including Itaipu, Belo Monte, Tucurui, Gotvand, Tarbela, Capanda, Guri and Tocoma. Erbisti is a visiting professor on the topic of hydraulic gate design for the post-graduate course of hydraulic engineering at the University of Paraná, Brazil. He is a member of the consulting board of the International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, UK. In 2011, he was elected by International Water Power & Dam Construction magazine as one of twenty people believed to have made the biggest difference to the sector over the last decade.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / Dams & Reservoirs