442 Pages
    by CRC Press

    442 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Revised and updated, this second edition of Design of Hydraulic Gates maintains the same goal as the original: to be used as a textbook and a manual of design of gates, presenting the main aspects of design, manufacture, installation and operation of hydraulic gates, while introducing new products, technologies and calculation procedures. This edition included new chapters on intake gates and trashrack design, highlighting the aspects of safety, operational and maintenance procedures. To improve the strength against structural failure of intake trashracks, the author proposes a series of rigid calculation assumptions, design parameters and manufacturing procedures, which will certainly result in safer trashracks. Some 340 drawings and photographs, 82 tables, 107 references and 23 worked examples help the reader to understand the basic concepts and calculation methods presented.


    1 Introduction
    1.1 History and development
    1.2 Gate components
    1.3 Main applications
    1.4 Types and classifications
    1.4.1 Purpose
    1.4.2 Movement
    1.4.3 Water passage
    1.4.4 Gate leaf composition
    1.4.5 Location
    1.4.6 Skin plate shape

    2 Types of gates
    2.1 Flap gate
    2.2 Cylinder gate
    2.3 Stoplogs
    2.4 Slide gate
    2.5 Caterpillar gate
    2.6 Miter gate
    2.7 Roller gate
    2.8 Segment gate
    2.9 Sector gate
    2.10 Stoney gate
    2.11 Drum gate
    2.12 Bear-trap gate
    2.13 Fixed-wheel gate
    2.14 Visor gate

    3 Basis for selection of gate type
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Most common types
    3.3 Operational requirements
    3.4 Present limits of gate sizes and heads

    4 Hydrostatics
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Vertical lift gates
    4.2.1 Weir gates
    4.2.2 Submerged gates
    4.2.3 Spacing of horizontal beams
    4.3 Radial gates

    5 Structural design
    5.1 Load cases
    5.2 Allowable stresses
    5.3 Skin plate
    5.3.1 Thickness
    5.3.2 Plate stresses
    5.3.3 Effective width
    5.4 Horizontal beams
    5.4.1 Number of beams
    5.4.2 Girder dimensions Web thickness Web depth Flanges
    5.4.3 Elastic stability Compression flanges Web stability Stiffeners
    5.4.4 Simple bending of beams
    5.5 Segment gate
    5.5.1 Skin plate
    5.5.2 Gate framing Girder arrangement Horizontal beams Vertical beams
    5.5.3 Radial arms Axial loads on the arms Bearing loads Buckling check
    5.6 Silt pressure on gates
    5.7 Gate seismic loads

    6 Embedded parts, guides and supports
    6.1 Slots and niches
    6.2 Wheel track
    6.2.1 Beam on an elastic foundation
    6.2.2 Dimensioning by the Andree-Fricke theory
    6.3 Slide tracks
    6.4 Concrete bearing pressure
    6.5 Lateral guidance
    6.6 Wheels and pins
    6.6.1 Design features
    6.6.2 Contact pressure between wheel and track
    6.6.3 Permissible contact stresses 1
    6.6.4 Surface hardness
    6.7 Gate hinges and bearings
    6.7.1 Types of bearings
    6.7.2 Cylindrical bushings
    6.7.3 Spherical plain bearing
    6.7.4 Roller bearings

    7 Estimating gate weights
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Segment gates
    7.3 Fixed-wheel gates
    7.4 Double-leaf fixed-wheel gates
    7.5 Stoplogs
    7.6 Flap gates
    7.7 Caterpillar gates
    7.8 Embedded parts

    8 Hydrodynamic forces
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Model tests
    8.3 Factors influencing downpull
    8.4 Formulae for the prediction of downpull
    8.5 Method of Knapp

    9 Gate operating forces
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Gate weight
    9.3 Friction on supports and hinges
    9.4 Seal deflection
    9.5 Seal friction

    10 Aeration
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Air vents – functions and features
    10.3 Air vents – empirical calculation
    10.4 Air-demand ratio
    10.5 Air vent dimensioning

    11 Gate hoists
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Screw lifts
    11.3 Wire ropes
    11.4 Roller chains
    11.5 Oil hydraulic drives
    11.6 Gate hoist arrangement
    11.7 Hand operation
    11.8 Design criteria
    11.8.1 Load capacity
    11.8.2 Operating speed
    11.8.3 Safety factors
    11.9 Gate position measurement

    12 Materials
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Heat treatment
    12.3 Rolled steels
    12.4 Steels for machine elements
    12.5 Stainless steels
    12.6 Cast steels
    12.7 Forged steels
    12.8 Gray cast irons
    12.9 Bronzes
    12.10 Bolts

    13 Gate seals
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Wood seals
    13.3 Metallic seals
    13.4 Rubber seals
    13.5 Material for rubber seals
    13.6 Clad seals
    13.7 Rubber seal hardness
    13.8 Rubber specifications
    13.9 Seal leakage
    13.10 Manufacture and assembly of seals
    13.11 High-head segment gates – design considerations
    13.12 Double-sealing gates

    14 Manufacture, transportation and erection
    14.1 Manufacture
    14.1.1 Manufacturing steps
    14.1.2 Full-size layout drawings
    14.1.3 Storing of raw material
    14.1.4 Marking
    14.1.5 Cutting
    14.1.6 Curving
    14.1.7 Structure welding
    14.1.8 Finishing
    14.1.9 Pre-assembly
    14.1.10 Machining
    14.1.11 Mechanical fit-up
    14.1.12 Anticorrosive protection
    14.1.13 Inspection
    14.1.14 Manufacturing tolerances
    14.2 Transportation
    14.3 Field erection
    14.3.1 Erection instructions
    14.3.2 Erection of embedded parts
    14.3.3 Erection tolerances of embedded parts
    14.3.4 Gate assembly
    14.4 Acceptance tests

    15 Trends and innovation in gate design
    15.1 Long-span gates
    15.2 High-head gates
    15.3 Refurbishment and modernization of gates and dams
    15.3.1 Heightening of existing gates
    15.3.2 Installation of new gates on the top of the dam

    16 Intake gates
    16.1 Intake gates and accessories
    16.2 Types of emergency gates
    16.3 Gate hoists
    16.3.1 Types of hoists
    16.3.2 Hydraulic hoists
    16.3.3 Cable hoists
    16.3.4 Gantry cranes
    16.4 Filling the penstock
    16.5 Aeration
    16.6 Guard gates for Kaplan turbines
    16.7 Guard gates for bulb turbines
    16.8 Draft tube stoplogs for bulb and Kaplan turbines

    17 Intake trashracks
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Rack bar spacing
    17.3 Design considerations
    17.4 Flow velocity
    17.5 Head loss
    17.6 Flow-induced vibrations
    17.7 Rack-cleaning machines
    17.8 Safe design criteria for trashracks

    Name index
    Subject index


    Brazilian engineer Paulo Erbisti graduated in mechanical engineering and has amassed considerable experience working on numerous hydromechanical projects, contributing greatly to hydropower/dam engineering over the last few decades in South America, Africa and Asia. He has worked on many important projects including Itaipu, Belo Monte, Tucurui, Gotvand, Tarbela, Capanda, Guri and Tocoma. Erbisti is a visiting professor on the topic of hydraulic gate design for the post-graduate course of hydraulic engineering at the University of Paraná, Brazil. He is a member of the consulting board of the International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, UK. In 2011, he was elected by International Water Power & Dam Construction magazine as one of twenty people believed to have made the biggest difference to the sector over the last decade.

    Praise for the first edition:

    Nobody is better qualified than Professor Paulo Erbisti to have written this book “Design of Hydraulic Gates”, because he has acquired a very broad personal experience during his career devoted to hydroelectric projects, not only with a scientific spirit, but also a practical approach. He knows very well all the phases of implementation of hydromechanical equipment, from feasibility studies through to erection and commissioning, as well as rehabilitation.

    This book is extremely welcome as an efficient synthesis of a broad subject, and engineers from the various disciplines, not only mechanical and electrical but also civil engineers, will recognize its value. The author has covered the subject of gates very comprehensively in his book, from history to new developments. He discusses not only the principle of gates and their associated equipment, the choice of type and calculation methods, but also he (as an excellent practical engineer, who knows that ‘the devil hides in the details’) describes their construction details. Each chapter is supported by a complete list of international references.

    The book will be very useful for experienced engineers (as well as students) for the conception, construction and operation of gates.The interest of this book is evident as a reference, and Professor Erbisti should be gratefully acknowledged for his important contribution to this technology.

    Raymond Lafitte, Professor at EPFL (Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne), President of the International Hydropower Association

    As one leafs through the book, one is pleasantly surprised by the many clear illustrations and photos (ca. 300), tables (ca. 70) and calculations (ca. 20). […] On the one hand, the book – as a textbook – offers students a very clear introduction to the field and on the other hand, represents a handbook with lots of useful advice for engineers in the field of steel hydraulic engineering. Some 90 bibliographic references lead the reader to further background information, also in the realm of more theoretically oriented steel hydraulic engineering. Erbisti’s book "Design of Hydraulic Gates" is all in all a very useful and recommended book.

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schmaußer, Aalen, in Stahlbau 73 (2004), 644-646