Design of Hydraulic Gates  book cover
2nd Edition

Design of Hydraulic Gates

ISBN 9781138073739
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
442 Pages

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Book Description

Revised and updated, this second edition of Design of Hydraulic Gates maintains the same goal as the original: to be used as a textbook and a manual of design of gates, presenting the main aspects of design, manufacture, installation and operation of hydraulic gates, while introducing new products, technologies and calculation procedures. This edition included new chapters on intake gates and trashrack design, highlighting the aspects of safety, operational and maintenance procedures. To improve the strength against structural failure of intake trashracks, the author proposes a series of rigid calculation assumptions, design parameters and manufacturing procedures, which will certainly result in safer trashracks. Some 340 drawings and photographs, 82 tables, 107 references and 23 worked examples help the reader to understand the basic concepts and calculation methods presented.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction
1.1 History and development
1.2 Gate components
1.3 Main applications
1.4 Types and classifications
1.4.1 Purpose
1.4.2 Movement
1.4.3 Water passage
1.4.4 Gate leaf composition
1.4.5 Location
1.4.6 Skin plate shape

2 Types of gates
2.1 Flap gate
2.2 Cylinder gate
2.3 Stoplogs
2.4 Slide gate
2.5 Caterpillar gate
2.6 Miter gate
2.7 Roller gate
2.8 Segment gate
2.9 Sector gate
2.10 Stoney gate
2.11 Drum gate
2.12 Bear-trap gate
2.13 Fixed-wheel gate
2.14 Visor gate

3 Basis for selection of gate type
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Most common types
3.3 Operational requirements
3.4 Present limits of gate sizes and heads

4 Hydrostatics
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Vertical lift gates
4.2.1 Weir gates
4.2.2 Submerged gates
4.2.3 Spacing of horizontal beams
4.3 Radial gates

5 Structural design
5.1 Load cases
5.2 Allowable stresses
5.3 Skin plate
5.3.1 Thickness
5.3.2 Plate stresses
5.3.3 Effective width
5.4 Horizontal beams
5.4.1 Number of beams
5.4.2 Girder dimensions Web thickness Web depth Flanges
5.4.3 Elastic stability Compression flanges Web stability Stiffeners
5.4.4 Simple bending of beams
5.5 Segment gate
5.5.1 Skin plate
5.5.2 Gate framing Girder arrangement Horizontal beams Vertical beams
5.5.3 Radial arms Axial loads on the arms Bearing loads Buckling check
5.6 Silt pressure on gates
5.7 Gate seismic loads

6 Embedded parts, guides and supports
6.1 Slots and niches
6.2 Wheel track
6.2.1 Beam on an elastic foundation
6.2.2 Dimensioning by the Andree-Fricke theory
6.3 Slide tracks
6.4 Concrete bearing pressure
6.5 Lateral guidance
6.6 Wheels and pins
6.6.1 Design features
6.6.2 Contact pressure between wheel and track
6.6.3 Permissible contact stresses 1
6.6.4 Surface hardness
6.7 Gate hinges and bearings
6.7.1 Types of bearings
6.7.2 Cylindrical bushings
6.7.3 Spherical plain bearing
6.7.4 Roller bearings

7 Estimating gate weights
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Segment gates
7.3 Fixed-wheel gates
7.4 Double-leaf fixed-wheel gates
7.5 Stoplogs
7.6 Flap gates
7.7 Caterpillar gates
7.8 Embedded parts

8 Hydrodynamic forces
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Model tests
8.3 Factors influencing downpull
8.4 Formulae for the prediction of downpull
8.5 Method of Knapp

9 Gate operating forces
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Gate weight
9.3 Friction on supports and hinges
9.4 Seal deflection
9.5 Seal friction

10 Aeration
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Air vents – functions and features
10.3 Air vents – empirical calculation
10.4 Air-demand ratio
10.5 Air vent dimensioning

11 Gate hoists
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Screw lifts
11.3 Wire ropes
11.4 Roller chains
11.5 Oil hydraulic drives
11.6 Gate hoist arrangement
11.7 Hand operation
11.8 Design criteria
11.8.1 Load capacity
11.8.2 Operating speed
11.8.3 Safety factors
11.9 Gate position measurement

12 Materials
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Heat treatment
12.3 Rolled steels
12.4 Steels for machine elements
12.5 Stainless steels
12.6 Cast steels
12.7 Forged steels
12.8 Gray cast irons
12.9 Bronzes
12.10 Bolts

13 Gate seals
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Wood seals
13.3 Metallic seals
13.4 Rubber seals
13.5 Material for rubber seals
13.6 Clad seals
13.7 Rubber seal hardness
13.8 Rubber specifications
13.9 Seal leakage
13.10 Manufacture and assembly of seals
13.11 High-head segment gates – design considerations
13.12 Double-sealing gates

14 Manufacture, transportation and erection
14.1 Manufacture
14.1.1 Manufacturing steps
14.1.2 Full-size layout drawings
14.1.3 Storing of raw material
14.1.4 Marking
14.1.5 Cutting
14.1.6 Curving
14.1.7 Structure welding
14.1.8 Finishing
14.1.9 Pre-assembly
14.1.10 Machining
14.1.11 Mechanical fit-up
14.1.12 Anticorrosive protection
14.1.13 Inspection
14.1.14 Manufacturing tolerances
14.2 Transportation
14.3 Field erection
14.3.1 Erection instructions
14.3.2 Erection of embedded parts
14.3.3 Erection tolerances of embedded parts
14.3.4 Gate assembly
14.4 Acceptance tests

15 Trends and innovation in gate design
15.1 Long-span gates
15.2 High-head gates
15.3 Refurbishment and modernization of gates and dams
15.3.1 Heightening of existing gates
15.3.2 Installation of new gates on the top of the dam

16 Intake gates
16.1 Intake gates and accessories
16.2 Types of emergency gates
16.3 Gate hoists
16.3.1 Types of hoists
16.3.2 Hydraulic hoists
16.3.3 Cable hoists
16.3.4 Gantry cranes
16.4 Filling the penstock
16.5 Aeration
16.6 Guard gates for Kaplan turbines
16.7 Guard gates for bulb turbines
16.8 Draft tube stoplogs for bulb and Kaplan turbines

17 Intake trashracks
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Rack bar spacing
17.3 Design considerations
17.4 Flow velocity
17.5 Head loss
17.6 Flow-induced vibrations
17.7 Rack-cleaning machines
17.8 Safe design criteria for trashracks

Name index
Subject index

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Brazilian engineer Paulo Erbisti graduated in mechanical engineering and has amassed considerable experience working on numerous hydromechanical projects, contributing greatly to hydropower/dam engineering over the last few decades in South America, Africa and Asia. He has worked on many important projects including Itaipu, Belo Monte, Tucurui, Gotvand, Tarbela, Capanda, Guri and Tocoma. Erbisti is a visiting professor on the topic of hydraulic gate design for the post-graduate course of hydraulic engineering at the University of Paraná, Brazil. He is a member of the consulting board of the International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, UK. In 2011, he was elected by International Water Power & Dam Construction magazine as one of twenty people believed to have made the biggest difference to the sector over the last decade.


Praise for the first edition:

Nobody is better qualified than Professor Paulo Erbisti to have written this book “Design of Hydraulic Gates”, because he has acquired a very broad personal experience during his career devoted to hydroelectric projects, not only with a scientific spirit, but also a practical approach. He knows very well all the phases of implementation of hydromechanical equipment, from feasibility studies through to erection and commissioning, as well as rehabilitation.

This book is extremely welcome as an efficient synthesis of a broad subject, and engineers from the various disciplines, not only mechanical and electrical but also civil engineers, will recognize its value. The author has covered the subject of gates very comprehensively in his book, from history to new developments. He discusses not only the principle of gates and their associated equipment, the choice of type and calculation methods, but also he (as an excellent practical engineer, who knows that ‘the devil hides in the details’) describes their construction details. Each chapter is supported by a complete list of international references.

The book will be very useful for experienced engineers (as well as students) for the conception, construction and operation of gates.The interest of this book is evident as a reference, and Professor Erbisti should be gratefully acknowledged for his important contribution to this technology.

Raymond Lafitte, Professor at EPFL (Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne), President of the International Hydropower Association

As one leafs through the book, one is pleasantly surprised by the many clear illustrations and photos (ca. 300), tables (ca. 70) and calculations (ca. 20). […] On the one hand, the book – as a textbook – offers students a very clear introduction to the field and on the other hand, represents a handbook with lots of useful advice for engineers in the field of steel hydraulic engineering. Some 90 bibliographic references lead the reader to further background information, also in the realm of more theoretically oriented steel hydraulic engineering. Erbisti’s book "Design of Hydraulic Gates" is all in all a very useful and recommended book.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schmaußer, Aalen, in Stahlbau 73 (2004), 644-646