1st Edition

Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes

By Ioannis Vayas, Aristidis Iliopoulos Copyright 2013
    584 Pages
    by CRC Press

    584 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Combining a theoretical background with engineering practice, Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes covers the conceptual and detailed design of composite bridges in accordance with the Eurocodes. Bridge design is strongly based on prescriptive normative rules regarding loads and their combinations, safety factors, material properties, analysis methods, required verifications, and other issues that are included in the codes. Composite bridges may be designed in accordance with the Eurocodes, which have recently been adopted across the European Union. This book centers on the new design rules incorporated in the EN-versions of the Eurocodes.

    The book addresses the design for a majority of composite bridge superstructures and guides readers through the selection of appropriate structural bridge systems. It introduces the loads on bridges and their combinations, proposes software supported analysis models, and outlines the required verifications for sections and members at ultimate and serviceability limit states, including fatigue and plate buckling, as well as seismic design of the deck and the bearings. It presents the main types of common composite bridges, discusses structural forms and systems, and describes preliminary design aids and erection methods. It provides information on railway bridges, but through the design examples makes road bridges the focal point.

    This text includes several design examples within the chapters, explores the structural details, summarizes the relevant design codes, discusses durability issues, presents the properties for structural materials, concentrates on modeling for global analysis, and lays down the rules for the shear connection. It presents fatigue analysis and design, fatigue load models, detail categories, and fatigue verifications for structural steel, reinforcement, concrete, and shear connectors. It also covers structural bearings and dampers, with an emphasis on reinforced elastomeric bearings. The book is appropriate for structural engineering students, bridge designers or practicing engineers converting from other codes to Eurocodes.



    List of symbols

    Types of steel–concrete composite bridges


    Composite bridges: The concept

    Highway bridges

    Railway bridges

    Construction forms

    Erection methods

    Concreting sequence


    Innovation in composite bridge engineering


    Design codes


    National annexes



    Classification of actions

    Traffic loads on road bridges

    Actions for accidental design situations

    Actions on pedestrian parapets and railings

    Load models for abutments and walls in contact with earth

    Traffic loads on railway bridges





    Basis of design


    Limit state design

    Ultimate limit state (ULS)

    Serviceability limit state (SLS)

    Safety factors of resistances



    Structural materials


    Structural steel

    Reinforcing steel

    Prestressing steel


    Stud shear connectors


    Modeling and methods for global analysis

    Global analysis models

    Effective width of wide flanges due to shear lag

    Cross-sectional properties

    Effects of the rheological behavior of concrete on structural systems

    Models for slab analysis and design in transverse direction

    Finite element models for global analysis


    Buckling of plated elements


    Elastic critical stress

    Strength of plates

    Design by the reduced stress method

    Effective width method

    Member verification for axial compression and bending

    Resistance to shear

    Resistance to concentrated transverse forces


    Flange-induced buckling

    Design of stiffeners and detailing


    Ultimate limit states

    Classification of cross sections

    Resistance to tension: Allowance for fastener holes in bending capacity

    Resistance of steel members and cross sections to compression

    Resistance to shear due to vertical shear and torsion

    Resistance to bending of steel cross sections

    Interaction of bending with shear for steel cross sections

    Class 1 and 2 cross sections

    Cross sections with class 3 webs that may be treated as class 2 sections (hole-in-web method)

    Class 3 cross sections

    Class 4 cross sections that are treated as class 3 cross sections

    Class 4 cross sections

    Class 4 cross sections composed of the flanges

    Lateral torsional buckling

    Design of the concrete deck slab


    Serviceability limit states


    Stress analysis and limitations

    Cracking of concrete

    Web breathing






    Fatigue resistance to constant amplitude loading

    Fatigue resistance to variable amplitude loading

    Detail categories

    Fatigue load models and simplified fatigue analysis

    Fatigue verification for structural steel

    Fatigue verification for headed studs

    Fatigue verification for reinforcing steel

    Fatigue verification for concrete

    Possibilities of omitting fatigue assessment

    Residual stresses and postweld treatment


    Shear connection


    Resistance and detailing of headed stud shear connectors

    Longitudinal shear for elastic behavior

    Longitudinal shear for inelastic behavior

    Longitudinal shear due to concentrated forces

    Longitudinal shear in concrete slabs

    Shear connection of composite closed box bridges


    Structural bearings, dampers, and expansion joints


    Reinforced elastomeric bearings

    Spherical bearings

    Pot bearings

    Seismic isolation

    Anchorage of bearings

    Calculation of movements and support reactions

    Bearing schedules, support plans, and installation drawings

    Fluid viscous dampers

    Friction devices

    Expansion joints




    Ioannis Vayas is professor and director of the Institute of Steel Structures at the National Technical University of Athens. He graduated in civil engineering at the same university and received his Dr-Ing from the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, and his welding engineering specialization from SLV Hannover, Germany. He has been involved in research, national and European codification, and consultancy on steel structures and bridges for over 30 years.

    Aristidis Iliopoulos is a structural engineer and received his Dr-Ing from Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. He has participated in numerous projects such as longspan roofs, steel–concrete composite bridges, and steel buildings in seismic areas. He is also a member of the CEN/TC 250/SC3 and CEN/TC 250/SC4 Working Groups for steel and composite bridges.

    The book deals in an ideal form––concise, but not to exhaustive––with all aspects of the design of steel- composite bridges according to the Eurocodes. … It is an essential help for the designer as the Eurocodes themselves give sometimes overwhelming and unnecessary detailed information (so that the information you are looking for is difficult to detect) whilst other information are lacking. … These chapters treat the relevant topics with the necessary depth and can be much easier read than the Eurocodes. At the age of 75 I am cautious with new books dedicated to design, but English- speaking Design Engineers should have it on their shelves.
    ––Reiner Saul, Dipl.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h., Leonhardt, Andrä und Partner Stuttgart, Warmbronn, Germany