1st Edition

Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes

ISBN 9781138076952
Published May 16, 2017 by CRC Press
584 Pages

USD $115.00

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Book Description

Combining a theoretical background with engineering practice, Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes covers the conceptual and detailed design of composite bridges in accordance with the Eurocodes. Bridge design is strongly based on prescriptive normative rules regarding loads and their combinations, safety factors, material properties, analysis methods, required verifications, and other issues that are included in the codes. Composite bridges may be designed in accordance with the Eurocodes, which have recently been adopted across the European Union. This book centers on the new design rules incorporated in the EN-versions of the Eurocodes.

The book addresses the design for a majority of composite bridge superstructures and guides readers through the selection of appropriate structural bridge systems. It introduces the loads on bridges and their combinations, proposes software supported analysis models, and outlines the required verifications for sections and members at ultimate and serviceability limit states, including fatigue and plate buckling, as well as seismic design of the deck and the bearings. It presents the main types of common composite bridges, discusses structural forms and systems, and describes preliminary design aids and erection methods. It provides information on railway bridges, but through the design examples makes road bridges the focal point.

This text includes several design examples within the chapters, explores the structural details, summarizes the relevant design codes, discusses durability issues, presents the properties for structural materials, concentrates on modeling for global analysis, and lays down the rules for the shear connection. It presents fatigue analysis and design, fatigue load models, detail categories, and fatigue verifications for structural steel, reinforcement, concrete, and shear connectors. It also covers structural bearings and dampers, with an emphasis on reinforced elastomeric bearings. The book is appropriate for structural engineering students, bridge designers or practicing engineers converting from other codes to Eurocodes.

Table of Contents



List of symbols

Types of steel–concrete composite bridges


Composite bridges: The concept

Highway bridges

Railway bridges

Construction forms

Erection methods

Concreting sequence


Innovation in composite bridge engineering


Design codes


National annexes



Classification of actions

Traffic loads on road bridges

Actions for accidental design situations

Actions on pedestrian parapets and railings

Load models for abutments and walls in contact with earth

Traffic loads on railway bridges





Basis of design


Limit state design

Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Serviceability limit state (SLS)

Safety factors of resistances



Structural materials


Structural steel

Reinforcing steel

Prestressing steel


Stud shear connectors


Modeling and methods for global analysis

Global analysis models

Effective width of wide flanges due to shear lag

Cross-sectional properties

Effects of the rheological behavior of concrete on structural systems

Models for slab analysis and design in transverse direction

Finite element models for global analysis


Buckling of plated elements


Elastic critical stress

Strength of plates

Design by the reduced stress method

Effective width method

Member verification for axial compression and bending

Resistance to shear

Resistance to concentrated transverse forces


Flange-induced buckling

Design of stiffeners and detailing


Ultimate limit states

Classification of cross sections

Resistance to tension: Allowance for fastener holes in bending capacity

Resistance of steel members and cross sections to compression

Resistance to shear due to vertical shear and torsion

Resistance to bending of steel cross sections

Interaction of bending with shear for steel cross sections

Class 1 and 2 cross sections

Cross sections with class 3 webs that may be treated as class 2 sections (hole-in-web method)

Class 3 cross sections

Class 4 cross sections that are treated as class 3 cross sections

Class 4 cross sections

Class 4 cross sections composed of the flanges

Lateral torsional buckling

Design of the concrete deck slab


Serviceability limit states


Stress analysis and limitations

Cracking of concrete

Web breathing






Fatigue resistance to constant amplitude loading

Fatigue resistance to variable amplitude loading

Detail categories

Fatigue load models and simplified fatigue analysis

Fatigue verification for structural steel

Fatigue verification for headed studs

Fatigue verification for reinforcing steel

Fatigue verification for concrete

Possibilities of omitting fatigue assessment

Residual stresses and postweld treatment


Shear connection


Resistance and detailing of headed stud shear connectors

Longitudinal shear for elastic behavior

Longitudinal shear for inelastic behavior

Longitudinal shear due to concentrated forces

Longitudinal shear in concrete slabs

Shear connection of composite closed box bridges


Structural bearings, dampers, and expansion joints


Reinforced elastomeric bearings

Spherical bearings

Pot bearings

Seismic isolation

Anchorage of bearings

Calculation of movements and support reactions

Bearing schedules, support plans, and installation drawings

Fluid viscous dampers

Friction devices

Expansion joints



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Ioannis Vayas is professor and director of the Institute of Steel Structures at the National Technical University of Athens. He graduated in civil engineering at the same university and received his Dr-Ing from the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, and his welding engineering specialization from SLV Hannover, Germany. He has been involved in research, national and European codification, and consultancy on steel structures and bridges for over 30 years.

Aristidis Iliopoulos is a structural engineer and received his Dr-Ing from Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. He has participated in numerous projects such as longspan roofs, steel–concrete composite bridges, and steel buildings in seismic areas. He is also a member of the CEN/TC 250/SC3 and CEN/TC 250/SC4 Working Groups for steel and composite bridges.