Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds

1st Edition

By David A Lewandowski

CRC Press

368 pages

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Hardback: 9781566704106
pub: 1999-09-29
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Description

Controlling the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) became a very prominent environmental issue with the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and will continue to be an environmental priority through the next decade. No single technology has played as important a role in the control of VOC emissions as thermal oxidation. It has the ability to destroy VOCs in a one-step process that produces innocuous by-products.

Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds provides all the information needed for developing a thermal oxidation design in a single reference. It covers design, operation, and maintenance as well as the principles behind the classification of volatile organic compounds as hazardous waste. The author explores the primary purpose of thermal oxidizers and discusses their limitations.

The book provides:

  • practical, complete, and concise thermal oxidizer design principles

  • an outline of state-of-the-art design principles

  • a practical rather than theoretical approach

  • real industrial examples in each chapter

    With the new regulations that affect VOC emissions, engineers from such diverse fields as oil refining, chemical distillation and separation processes, and pharmaceutical industries will need to design and implement thermal oxidation systems. Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds provides a reference to the entire design process, from conceptualization to operation and maintenance.

  • Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION

    Combustion

    History of Air Pollution

    Thermal Oxidation's Wide Applicability

    Air Pollutant Emissions in the United States

    Industrial Sources of Air Pollution

    ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS

    Federal Law - State Implementation

    1990 Clean Air Act Titles

    VOC DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY

    Operating Parameters

    Destruction Efficiency

    EPA Incinerability Ranking

    Environmental Regulations

    Halogenated Compounds

    COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY

    Generalized Oxidation Reactions

    Highly Halogenated VOCs

    Chemical Equilibrium

    Dewpoint

    Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs)

    Substoichiometric Combustion

    Emission Correction Factors

    MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE

    Fundamentals

    Energy Balance

    Lower and Higher Heating Values

    Auxiliary Fuels

    Mass-to-Volume Heat Release Conversions

    Mixture Heating Values

    VOC Heating Value Approximations

    Heat of Formation

    Water Quench

    Auxiliary Fuel Addition

    Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    Excess Air

    Wet vs Dry Combustion Products

    Simplified Calculational Procedures

    WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Waste Stream Characterization

    Waste Stream Variability

    Minor Contaminants - Major Problems

    Classifications

    Liquid Waste Streams

    THERMAL OXIDIZER DESIGN

    Burners

    Residence Chamber

    Refractory Insulation

    Thermal Conductivity

    Heat Loss

    Mixing

    Plenums and Nozzles

    Typical Arrangements

    HEAT RECOVERY

    Heat Exchangers

    Waste Heat Boilers (WHB)

    Heat Transfer Fluids

    Water Heating

    Drying

    Regenerative Heat Recovery

    CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    Applications

    Theory

    Basic Equipment and Operation

    Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV)

    Catalyst Design

    Operation

    Halogens

    Catalytic vs. Thermal Oxidation

    Waste Gas Heating Value Effects

    Catalyst Deactivation

    Deactivation Indicators

    Regeneration

    Performance Comparison

    Pilot Testing

    Summary

    REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS

    Evolution of the RTO

    Basic Concept

    Thermal Efficiency

    Number of Heat Sink (Regenerator) Beds

    Purge System

    Bed Orientation

    Thermal Efficiency vs Cycle Time

    Heat Sink Materials

    Flow Diverter Valve

    Single-Chamber Design

    Auxiliary Fuel Injection

    Pollutant Emissions

    Effect of Waste Stream Component on Design and Operation

    Exhaust Temperature Control

    Waste Stream Motive Force

    Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (RCO)

    Retrofit of RTO

    COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL

    Characterizing/Converting NOx Emission Levels

    NOx Formation Mechanisms

    Thermal NOx Equilibrium/Kinetics

    Parametric Affects

    Fuel Type Affects

    NOx Prediction

    Low NOx Burners

    Vitiated Air

    Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR)

    Fuel-Induced Recirculation (FIR)

    Water/Stream Injection

    Air/Fuel Staging

    Staged Air Oxidation for Chemically Bound Nitrogen

    Effect of Sulfur

    POST-COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL

    Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR)

    Chemistry

    Effect of Temperature

    Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio

    NOx Inlet Loading

    Effect of Residence Time

    Effect of POC Carbon Monoxide Concentration

    Practical Reduction Levels

    Injection Methods

    Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling

    Ammonia Slip

    Reagent By-Products

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

    GAS SCRUBBING SYSTEMS

    Wet Scrubbers

    Dry Systems

    Hybrid Systems

    SAFETY SYSTEMS

    Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)

    Minimum Oxygen Concentration

    Flashback Velocity

    Flashback Prevention Techniques

    Combustion Safeguards

    Typical Natural Gas Fuel Train

    Start-Up Sequence

    Interlocks

    Lead/Lag Temperature Control

    Electrical Hazard Classifications

    DESIGN CHECKLIST

    Primary Objectives

    Scope of Supply

    Process Conditions

    Design Requirements

    Performance Requirements

    Auxiliary Equipment

    Utilities Available

    Environment

    Preferred Equipment/Approved Vendors

    Start-Up Assistance

    Spare Parts

    Design Documentation

    Appendix A - Incinerability Ranking

    Appendix B - Table of the Elements

    Appendix C - Heats of Combustion of Organic Compounds

    Appendix D - Abbreviated Steam Tables

    Appendix E - Explosive Limits of VOCs

    References

    Bibliography

    Index

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    NAT011000
    NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
    SCI026000
    SCIENCE / Environmental Science
    TEC009010
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical