2nd Edition

Designing for Situation Awareness An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition

By Mica R. Endsley Copyright 2004
    396 Pages 16 Color & 146 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    396 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The barrage of data overload is threatening the ability of people to effectively operate in a wide range of systems including aircraft cockpits and ground control stations, military command and control centers, intelligence operations, emergency management, medical systems, air traffic control centers, automobiles, financial and business management systems, space exploration, and power and process control rooms. All of these systems need user interfaces that allow people to effectively manage the information available to gain a high level of understanding of what is currently happening and projections on what will happen next. They need systems designed to support situation awareness.

    Addressing the information gap between the plethora of disorganized, low-level data and what decision makers really need to know, Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition provides a successful, systematic methodology and 50 design principles for engineers and designers seeking to improve the situation awareness of their systems' users based on leading research on a wide range of relevant issues.

    See what’s new in the Second Edition:

    • Significantly expanded and updated examples throughout to a wider range of domains New Chapters: Situation Awareness Oriented Training and Supporting SA in Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
    • Updated research findings and expanded discussion of the SA design principles and guidelines to cover new areas of development

    Mica R. Endsley is a pioneer and world leader in the study and application of situation awareness in advanced systems. Debra G. Jones work is focused on designing large-scale and complex systems to support situation awareness and dynamic decision making. Completely revised and updated, liberally illustrated with actual design examples, this second edition demonstrates how people acquire and interpret information and examines the factors that undermine this process. Endsley and Jones distill their expertise and translate current research into usable, applicable methods and guidelines.

    Understanding Situation Awareness in System Design
    User-Centered Design
    Who Is This Book For?
    Why Do We Need User-Centered Design?
    What Does User-Centered Design Mean?
    Principles for User-Centered Design
    Situation Awareness: The Key to User-Centered Design

    What Is Situation Awareness?
    SA Defined
    Time as a Part of SA
    Situation Awareness as a Product of the Process
    Perception and Attention
    Working Memory
    Mental Models, Schema, and Scripts
    Goals and SA
    Automaticity and SA

    SA Demons: The Enemies of Situation Awareness
    Attentional Tunneling
    Requisite Memory Trap
    Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors
    Data Overload
    Misplaced Salience
    Complexity Creep
    Errant Mental Models
    Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome

    Design Process
    Systems Development Life Cycle
    User Interface Design Process
    Situation Awareness-Oriented Design

    Creating Situation Awareness-Oriented Designs
    Determining SA Requirements
    Goal-Directed Task Analysis
    Methodology Overview
    Determining the Preliminary Goal Structure
    Future Interviews
    Interview Issues
    Organizational Tips
    GDTA Validation

    Principles of Designing for SA
    From Theory to Design
    Case Study: SA-Oriented Design

    Confidence and Uncertainty in SA and Decision Making
    Types and Sources of Uncertainty
    Role of Confidence in Linking SA and Decision Making
    Management of Uncertainty
    Design Principles for Representing Uncertainty

    Dealing with Complexity
    Simplified View of Complexity
    Design Principles for Taming Complexity

    Alarms, Diagnosis, and SA
    An Alarming Practice
    Processing Alarms in the Context of SA
    Principles for the Design of Alarm Systems

    Automation and Situation Awareness
    Automation: A Help or a Hindrance?
    Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
    Automation and Level of Understanding
    Decision Support Dilemma
    New Approaches to Automation
    Principles for Designing Automated Systems

    Designing to Support SA for Multiple and Distributed Operators
    Team Operations
    SA in Teams
    What Is Shared SA?
    Critical Factors Affecting SA in Teams
    SA in Distributed Teams
    SA Breakdowns in Teams
    Design Principles for Supporting Team Operations

    Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
    Unmanned Vehicles for Many Uses
    Classes of Unmanned Vehicle Control
    Human Error in Unmanned Vehicle Operations
    Situation Awareness Requirements for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
    Challenges for SA in Remote Operations
    Factors for Effective Design of Unmanned Vehicle Tasks and Systems

    SA Oriented Training
    Need for Training to Enhance SA
    Challenges for Novices
    Mental Models Form a Key Mechanism for Expertise
    Schema of Prototypical Situations or Patterns
    Critical Skills for SA
    Examples of SA Deficits in Novices
    Training Approaches for Improving Situation Awareness

    Completing the Design Cycle
    Evaluating Design Concepts for SA
    Indirect Measures of Situation Awareness
    Direct Measures of Situation Awareness
    Measuring Team SA
    Case Study

    Applying SA-Oriented Design to Complex Systems
    Combating the Enemies of Situation Awareness
    SA-Oriented Design Synergy
    System Evaluation
    Future Directions

    Appendix A: Goal-Directed Task Analysis for Commercial Airline Pilots


    Mica R. Endsley