This edited volume examines deterrence and the defense efforts of European states neighboring Russia, following the Crimean intervention.
Deterrence, after being largely absent from debates among academics and policy-makers for almost a quarter of a century, has made a comeback in Europe. Since Russia’s annexation of Crimea and the start of the military conflict in Ukraine’s Donbass region, eastern and northern European states have revised their assessments of Russia’s policies and intentions. The approach used by Russia in Ukraine has rendered lessons learned from the Cold War deterrence only partially applicable due to the changing security situation in Europe. The emergence of the cyber realm, a smaller emphasis on nuclear deterrence, and the ideological conflict between Russia and the West, are among the key differences between the Cold War and the current security environment. Structured into two parts, the first part discusses conceptual aspects of deterrence, while the second discusses ten country case studies, which include both NATO and non-NATO countries. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the changing character of deterrence and its practical application by Russia’s European neighbours.
This volume will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, European politics, Russian foreign policy, security studies and international relations in general.
Table of Contents
I Part Conceptualizing Deterrence
1. The Evolution of Deterrence from the Cold War to Hybrid War
2. NATO’s conventional deterrence posture
Martin Zapfe, Nora Vanaga
3. NATO’s Nuclear Deterrence Deficit
4. Total Defence as a Comprehensive Approach to National Security
II Part Country Case Studies
5. Sweden and its deterrence deficit: Quick to react, yet slow to act
6. Finland’s ambiguous deterrence: mixing deterrence by denial with ambiguous extended deterrence
7. Norway: NATO in the North?
8. Estonia’s Approach to Deterrence: Combining Central and Extended Deterrence
9. Latvia’s Defence Strategy: Challenges in Providing a Credible Deterrence Posture
10. The Deterrence Strategy of Lithuania: In Search of Right Combination
11. Belarus’ Constrained Efforts at National Deterrence
12. Poland – the NATO’s East European Frontline Nation
13. Germany: Rediscovering Collective Defence, Relearning Deterrence, Redefining its Role in European Defence
Claudia Major, Christian Mölling
14. Romania’s Approach on Deterrence
Carmen Sorina Rîjnoveanu
Nora Vanaga is a senior researcher at the Centre for Security and Strategic Research at the National Defence Academy of Latvia. She has published many book chapters and academic articles dealing with international security and defence issues.
Toms Rostoks is a researcher at the Centre for Security and Strategic Research at the National Defence Academy of Latvia. He is also Associate Professor in international relations at the Department of Political Science, University of Latvia.