Diamondoids: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Diamondoids

Synthesis, Properties, and Applications, 1st Edition

By Sven Stauss, Kazuo Terashima

Jenny Stanford Publishing

242 pages | 15 Color Illus. | 86 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2017-03-21
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Description

Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, most commonly fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have gained increasing interest in both science and industry, due to their advantageous properties that make them attractive for many applications in nanotechnology. Another class of the carbon nanomaterials family that has slowly been gaining (re)newed interest is diamond molecules, also called diamondoids, which consist of polycyclic carbon cages that can be superimposed on a cubic diamond lattice. Derivatives of diamondoids are used in pharmaceutics, but due to their promising properties—well-defined structures, high thermal and chemical stability, negative electron affinity, and the possibility to tune their bandgap—diamondoids could also serve as molecular building blocks in future nanodevices.

This book is the first of its kind to give an exhaustive overview of the structures, properties, and current and possible future applications of diamondoids. It contains a brief historical account of diamondoids, from the discovery of the first diamondoid member, adamantane, to the isolation of higher diamondoids about a decade ago. It summarizes the different approaches to synthesizing diamondoids. In particular, current research on the conventional organic synthesis and new approaches based on microplasmas generated in high-pressure and supercritical fluids are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods discussed. The book will serve as a reference for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students in chemistry, physics, materials science, and nanotechnology and researchers in macromolecular science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those with an interest in nanoparticles.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Structure, Nomenclature, and Symmetry of Diamondoids

Diamondoids and Their Relation to Other Carbon Nanomaterials

The Structure of Diamondoids

Classification of Diamondoids

Nomenclature and Classification of Diamondoids

Molecular Symmetry and Crystal Structures of Diamondoids

Differences between Diamondoids and Nanodiamonds

Chemical and Physical Properties and Characterization of Diamondoids

Chemical Properties

Physical Properties

Optical Properties

Mass Spectrometry of Diamondoids

Current and Future Applications of Diamondoids and Their Derivatives

Overview

Applications of Diamondoids in Oil Exploration

Current and Possible Future Applications of Diamondoids and Derivatives in Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Medicine, and Biotechnology

Applications in Materials Science and Nanotechnology

Possible Future Applications of Diamondoids

Summary

ISOLATION AND ORGANIC CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF DIAMONDOIDS

Occurrence and Isolation of Diamondoids from Natural Gas and Oil Reservoirs

Occurrence of Diamondoids in Natural Gas and Oil Reservoirs

Formation of Diamondoids in Natural Sources

Isolation of Diamondoids from Gas and Oil

Approaches for the Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids

A Brief History of the Isolation and Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids

Conventional Organic Chemical Synthesis of Diamondoids

Limitations of the Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids

NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF DIAMONDOIDS BY MICROPLASMAS

Diamondoid Synthesis by Electric Discharge Microplasmas in Supercritical Fluids

Introduction

Generation of Plasmas in Supercritical Fluids

Electric Discharges in High-Pressure and Supercritical Fluid Microreactors

Synthesis of Diamondoids by Pulsed Laser Plasmas

Application of Pulsed Laser Plasmas in Supercritical Fluids to Nanomaterial Synthesis

Synthesis of Diamondoids by Pulsed Laser Plasmas

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Comparison between PLA in scCO2 and scXe

Conclusions and Perspectives

Synthesis of Diamondoids by Atmospheric-Pressure Microplasmas

Introduction

Microchip Microplasma Reactors

Plasma Generation and Characterization

Summary

Conclusions and Perspectives

About the Authors

Sven Stauss received an engineering diploma in materials science from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, in 2000. After an internship at the R&D center of Toshiba, Japan, from 2000 to 2001, he pursued a PhD in materials science at the EPFL and the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Empa). After his graduation in 2005, he joined the group of Prof. Terashima in the Department of Advanced Materials Science at the University of Tokyo, Japan, where he is currently assistant professor. His current research focuses on cryoplasmas and plasmas in supercritical fluids and their application to materials processing.

Kazuo Terashima received his ME and PhD in metallurgy and materials science from the University of Tokyo in 1984 and 1988, respectively. From 1993 to 1995, he was a guest professor at the University of Basel, Switzerland. He is now a professor in the Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo. His major interest is in plasma materials science. His main research focuses on microplasmas and their application to exotic plasmas, such as supercritical fluid plasmas and cryoplasmas.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science