1st Edition

Diamondoids Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

By Sven Stauss, Kazuo Terashima Copyright 2017
    258 Pages 15 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    258 Pages 15 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, most commonly fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have gained increasing interest in both science and industry, due to their advantageous properties that make them attractive for many applications in nanotechnology. Another class of the carbon nanomaterials family that has slowly been gaining (re)newed interest is diamond molecules, also called diamondoids, which consist of polycyclic carbon cages that can be superimposed on a cubic diamond lattice. Derivatives of diamondoids are used in pharmaceutics, but due to their promising properties—well-defined structures, high thermal and chemical stability, negative electron affinity, and the possibility to tune their bandgap—diamondoids could also serve as molecular building blocks in future nanodevices.

    This book is the first of its kind to give an exhaustive overview of the structures, properties, and current and possible future applications of diamondoids. It contains a brief historical account of diamondoids, from the discovery of the first diamondoid member, adamantane, to the isolation of higher diamondoids about a decade ago. It summarizes the different approaches to synthesizing diamondoids. In particular, current research on the conventional organic synthesis and new approaches based on microplasmas generated in high-pressure and supercritical fluids are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods discussed. The book will serve as a reference for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students in chemistry, physics, materials science, and nanotechnology and researchers in macromolecular science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those with an interest in nanoparticles.


    Structure, Nomenclature, and Symmetry of Diamondoids

    Diamondoids and Their Relation to Other Carbon Nanomaterials

    The Structure of Diamondoids

    Classification of Diamondoids

    Nomenclature and Classification of Diamondoids

    Molecular Symmetry and Crystal Structures of Diamondoids

    Differences between Diamondoids and Nanodiamonds

    Chemical and Physical Properties and Characterization of Diamondoids

    Chemical Properties

    Physical Properties

    Optical Properties

    Mass Spectrometry of Diamondoids

    Current and Future Applications of Diamondoids and Their Derivatives


    Applications of Diamondoids in Oil Exploration

    Current and Possible Future Applications of Diamondoids and Derivatives in Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Medicine, and Biotechnology

    Applications in Materials Science and Nanotechnology

    Possible Future Applications of Diamondoids



    Occurrence and Isolation of Diamondoids from Natural Gas and Oil Reservoirs

    Occurrence of Diamondoids in Natural Gas and Oil Reservoirs

    Formation of Diamondoids in Natural Sources

    Isolation of Diamondoids from Gas and Oil

    Approaches for the Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids

    A Brief History of the Isolation and Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids

    Conventional Organic Chemical Synthesis of Diamondoids

    Limitations of the Organic Synthesis of Diamondoids


    Diamondoid Synthesis by Electric Discharge Microplasmas in Supercritical Fluids


    Generation of Plasmas in Supercritical Fluids

    Electric Discharges in High-Pressure and Supercritical Fluid Microreactors

    Synthesis of Diamondoids by Pulsed Laser Plasmas

    Application of Pulsed Laser Plasmas in Supercritical Fluids to Nanomaterial Synthesis

    Synthesis of Diamondoids by Pulsed Laser Plasmas

    Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Comparison between PLA in scCO2 and scXe

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    Synthesis of Diamondoids by Atmospheric-Pressure Microplasmas


    Microchip Microplasma Reactors

    Plasma Generation and Characterization


    Conclusions and Perspectives


    Sven Stauss received an engineering diploma in materials science from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, in 2000. After an internship at the R&D center of Toshiba, Japan, from 2000 to 2001, he pursued a PhD in materials science at the EPFL and the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Empa). After his graduation in 2005, he joined the group of Prof. Terashima in the Department of Advanced Materials Science at the University of Tokyo, Japan, where he is currently assistant professor. His current research focuses on cryoplasmas and plasmas in supercritical fluids and their application to materials processing.

    Kazuo Terashima received his ME and PhD in metallurgy and materials science from the University of Tokyo in 1984 and 1988, respectively. From 1993 to 1995, he was a guest professor at the University of Basel, Switzerland. He is now a professor in the Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo. His major interest is in plasma materials science. His main research focuses on microplasmas and their application to exotic plasmas, such as supercritical fluid plasmas and cryoplasmas.